A / A / A
Date de publication

Xavier Plaisancie est médecin. Sa thèse, réalisée avec le soutien de Jean-Hervé Bradol et Marc Le Pape, membres du Centre de recherche MSF-Crash porte sur « Les représentations du VIH et leur impact sur le recours aux soins. Enquête au sein de la population masculine de Homa Bay au Kenya ».

1- UNAIDS 2016–2021 Strategy. On the Fast-Track to end AIDS. UNAIDS/PCB (37)/15.18.rev1. Geneva; 27 October 2015. Funded by the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board.

2- Piot P et al. (On behalf of the UNAIDS–Lancet Commission) Defeating AIDS—advancing global health. Lancet. 2015;386: 171–218.

3- AIDS by the number. AIDS is not over but it can be. Available online at: http://www.unaids.org/en/ resources/documents/2016/AIDS-by-the-numbers. Genève; 2016. Funded by UNAIDS.

4- Out of focus. How millions of people in West and Central Africa are being left out of the global HIV response. Médecins Sans Frontières. Bruxelles; Avril 2016. Available online at: http://www.msf.org/ sites/msf.org/files/201604hivreporteng.pdf.

5- Kim AA et al. Progress in Reversing the HIV Epidemic through Intensified Access to Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey in Kenya, 2012. PLoS ONE. Mars 2016;11(3): e0148068.

6- Maman et al. Cascade of HIV care and population viral suppression in a high-burden region of Kenya. AIDS. 2015;29:1557 – 1565, Vol 29 No 12.

7- Véran J. HIV in Homa Bay County: Anthropological and Operational Report. Médecins sans Frontières. Paris, mai 2016.

8-WarinP.(MaisondesSciencesdel’Homme-Alpes).Lenon-recours:définitionettypologies.Grenoble; June 2010. Funded by the Observatoire des non-recours aux droits et services.

9- Goldsmith MR et al. Information and cervical screening: a qualitative study of women’s awareness, understanding and information needs about HPV. Journal of Medical Screening. 2007;14:29–33.

10- McFarland DM, Gueldner SM, Mogobe KD. Integrated Review of Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2016;48:5,490–498.

11- Tourette-Turgis C. (COMMENT DIRE). Guide de Prévention. Comment conduire des actions en éducation pour la santé sur l’infection par le V.I.H. auprès des jeunes en milieu scolaire. Paris; April 2003 Funded by Agence française de lutte contre le SIDA.

12- Tarkang EE, Zotor FB. Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in HIV Prevention: A Literature Review. Central African Journal of Public Health. 2015; Vol. 1, No. 1 pp. 1-8.

13- Genberg BL, Yoojin L, Rogers WH, Willey C, Wilson IB. Stages of Change for Adherence to Anti- retroviral Medications. AIDS Patient Care STDS. octobre 2013;27(10):567-72.

14- Hyde JS. Gender Similarities and Differences. Annual Review of Psychology. 2014;65:373–98

15- Forestier D, Vangrevelynghe G. Étude des représentations du dépistage du cancer et politique de prévention. Les Sciences de l’éducation - Pour l’Ère nouvelle (Vol. 39). 2006;97-113.

16- Godin G. L’éducation pour la santé : les fondements psycho-sociaux de la définition des messages éducatifs. Sciences sociales et santé. Volume 9, n°1. 1991: 67-94.

17- King R. Sexual behavioural change for HIV: Where have theories taken us? UNAIDS/99.27E. Geneva; June 1999. Funded by UNAIDS.

18- Schuler S, Hashemi S. Credit programs, women’s empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Studies in family planning. March 1994;25(2):65-76.

19- Aggleton P. Global priorities for HIV/AIDS intervention research. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 1996;7 Suppl 2:13-6.

20- Kegeles S, Hays R, Coates T. The Mpowerment Project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(8 Pt 1): 1129–1136.

21- Glick P. et al. Men are bad but bold (and women are wonderful but weak): hostile as well as benevolent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psycho- logy. 2005;86: 713–728.

22- Taylor SE, Fiske ST, Etcoff NL, Ruderman AJ. Categorical and contextual bases of person memory and stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1978;36: 778–793.

23- Chikovore J et al. Control, struggle, and emergent masculinities: A qualitative study of men’s care- seeking determinant for chronic cough and tuberculosis symptoms in Blantyre, Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1053.

24- Wood W, Eagly AH. Biosocial construction of sex differences and similarities in behavior. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 2012;46:55–123.

25- Mahalik JR, Burns SM, Syzdek M. Masculinity and perceived normative related behaviors as predictors of men’s health behaviour. Social Science & Medicine. Volume 64, Issue 11. 2007 : 2201-2209.

26- (Under the direction of) Welzer-Lang D, Zaouche-Gaudron C. Masculinités : état des lieux. Toulouse: ERES; 2011.

27- Peacock D, Stemple L, Sawires S, Coate TJ. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(Suppl 3): S119–S125.

28- Siu GE et al. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing : an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:33.

29- Kovacic V. Access for more. Overcome barriers to access to HIV/AIDS care in Homa Bay district, Kenya. Médecins sans Frontières. Paris; 2010.

30- Sikweyiya YM, Jewkes R, Dunkle K. Impact of HIV on and the constructions of masculinities among HIV-positive men in South Africa: implications for secondary prevention programs. Global Health Action. 2014;7: 24631.

31- Camlin CS et al (SEARCH Collaboration). Men “missing” from population-based HIV testing: insights from qualitative research. AIDS Care. 2016;28 Suppl 3:67-73.

32-. Williams RA. Masculinities fathering and health experience of African Caribbean and white working class. Social Science & Medicine Volume 64, Issue 2. 2007; pp. 338-349.

33- Hosegood V, Richter L, Clarke L. “ . . . I Should Maintain a Healthy Life Now and Not Just Live as I Please . . . ”. Men’s Health and Fatherhood in Rural South Africa. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2016,Vol. 10(6) N39 –N50.

34- Kulzer L et al. Family model of HIV care and treatment: a retrospective study in Kenya. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012;15:8.

35- Gauchet A. Les déterminants psychosociaux de l’observance thérapeutique chez les personnes infectées par le VIH ; représentations et valeurs. Doctoral thesis, psychology. Metz: U.F.R de sciences humaines et art. 2005.

36- Ochieng-Ooko V et al. Influence of gender on loss to follow-up in a large HIV treatment programme in western Kenya. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:681–688.

37- Gherissi A et al. Etude des déterminants de l’observance de la trithérapie auprès des personnes vivant avec le VIH. Revue Tunisienne d’Infectiologie. Avril 2010 . Vol.4 - N°2 : 66 – 73.

38 -Katz IT et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-syn- thesis. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013; 16 (Suppl 2):18640.

39- Oparanya WA. Kenya 2009 Population and Housing Census Results. Nairobi: Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2013. 2010.

40- Ogot BA. General History of Africa, Vol. V. Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Inter- national Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. UNESCO. 1999; ISBN 978-0-520-03916-2

41- Cohen DW, Odhiambo ESA. Siaya. The Historical Anthropology of an African Landscape. Oxford: J. Currey ; 1989.

42- Maupeu H. Kikuyu capitalistes. Réflexions sur un cliché kenyan. Outre-Terre. 2005/2 (no 11) : 493-506.

43- Malherbe M, Odhiambo N. Parlons Luo. Langue du Kenya. Paris: L’Harmattan; 2009.

44- Evans-Pritchard EE. Marriage Customs of the Luo of Kenya. Africa. Journal of the International African Institute Vol. 20, No. 2. 1950: 132-142.

45- Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Nairobi; 2015.

46- Ayikukwei R et al. HIV/AIDS and cultural practices in western Kenya: the impact of sexual cleansing rituals on sexual behaviours. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2008;10:6: 587-599.

47- Mojola SA. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN: Doing Masculinity in the wake of the African HIV/AIDS epidemic. Signs. 2014;39(2): 341–363.

48- Shiino W. Death and rituals among the Luo in South Nyanza. African Study Monographs. 1997;18(3, 4): 213-228.

49- Abong’o Ngore V. The Socio-Cultural Changes in the Kenyan Luo Society Since the British Invasion and the Effects on the Levirate Custom: A Critical Survey. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;2224-5766. Vol.4, No.18.

50- Witte M. Christianity and Public Culture in Africa. Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 27, No. 3. 2012 p.529-709. ISSN 1353-7903.

51- Kustenbauder M. Believing in the black messiah: the Legio Maria Church in an African landscape. Nova Religion: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 2009;13(1): 11-40.

52- Hornsby C. Kenya: A history since independence. Londres: I.B Tauris; 2013.

53- Hennequin W. Etat des lieux, Kenyan mission – MSFF, HoM September 2012 to April 2017. Médecins sans Frontières. April 2017.

54- African Development Bank Group – Kenya. Country Strategy Paper 2014-2018. EARC (East Africa Resource Center). Nairobi; 2014.

55- Potash B. “Some Aspects of Marital Stability in a Rural Luo Community.” Africa. 1978;48 (4): 380-397.

56- Statistical abstract 2017. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Nairobi; 2018. ISBN: 978-9966-102-05-8.

57- Kwena ZA et al. Short-Term Mobility and the Risk of HIV Infection among Married Couples in the Fishing Communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya. PloS One. 2013; 8(1):e54523.

58- Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Basic Report on Well-Being in Kenya. Based on the 2015/16 Kenya integrated Household Budget survey (KiHBs). Nairobi; 2018.

59- Médecins Sans Frontières - France. Rapport de mission. Homa Bay, Kenya. 1999.

60- Médecins Sans Frontières - France. Rapport du chef de mission 2003-2007. Homa Bay, Kenya. 2007.

61- Médecins Sans Frontières - France. Medical Activity Report. Nairobi, Kenya. 2009.

62- Lathelize M, Convent P. Evaluation en temps réel du projet VIH, Sub-County de Ndhiwa - Kenya. MSF-OCP. Médecins Sans Frontières. Paris; 2016.

63- Knight R, Small W, Shoveller JA. HIV stigma and the experiences of young men with voluntary and routine HIV testing. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2015;ISSN 0141-9889 : 1–15.

64- Becker HS. Les ficelles du métier, comment conduire sa recherche en sciences sociales. Paris : La Découverte; 2002.

65- Olivier de Sardan J.-P. La rigueur du qualitatif. Les contraintes empiriques de l’interprétation socio-anthropologique. Louvain-La-Neuve : Academia-Bruylant; 2008.

66- Dodier N. Leçons politiques de l’épidémie de Sida. Paris : Editions de l’EHESS; 2003.

67- Dozon J.-P. D’un tombeau l’autre. Cahiers d’études africaines, vol. 31, n°121-122, 1991 : 135-157.

68- Wellings K et al. The Lancet : Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective. The Lancet Sexual and Reproductive Health Series. Volume 368, No. 9548: 1706–1728; 2006.

69- Gisselquist D et al. Examining the Hypothesis that Sexual Transmission Drives Africa’s HIV Epidemic. AIDScience. 2003;3:10.

70- Sawers L, Stillwaggon E. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2010;13:34

71- Sidze EM et al. From paper to practice: sexuality education policies and their Implementation in Kenya. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2017.

72- Vidal L. Femmes en temps de sida. Expériences d’Afrique. Collection « Politique d’aujourd’hui ». Paris: Presses universitaires de France; 2000.

73- Hawkes S, Buse K. Gender and global health: evidence, policy, and inconvenient truths. Lancet. 2013; 381: 1783–87.

74- Corneli AL et al. A descriptive analysis of perceptions of HIV risk and worry about acquiring HIV among FEM-PrEP participants who seroconverted in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2014;17 (Suppl 2):19152.

75- Parrott FR. Combining qualitative and quantitative evidence to determine factors leading to late presentation for antiretroviral therapy in Malawi. PLoS ONE. 2011;6 (11):e27917.

76- Mburu et al. Intersectionality of HIV stigma and masculinity in eastern Uganda : implications for involving men in HIV programmes. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1061.

77- Chen Y. Treatment-related Optimistic Beliefs and Risk of HIV Transmission: A Review of Recent Findings (2009–2012) in an Era of Treatment as Prevention. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013;10(1): 79–88.

78- Murray CJL, Ezzatti M, Flaxman A, et al. GBD 2010: design, definitions, and metrics. Lancet. 2012;380: 2063–66.

79- Tsai AC, Siedner MJ. The Missing Men: HIV Treatment Scale-Up and Life Expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2015;12(11): e1001906.

80- Cohen SA, Richards CL. The Cairo Consensus: Population, Development and Women. Family Planning Perspectives. 1994;26(6):272-7.

81- Hawkes S, Hart G. Men’s sexual health matters. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2000; volume 5 no 7 pp a37–a44.

82- Kwambai TK et al. Perspectives of men on antenatal care and delivery care service utilisation in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2013;13:134.

83- Wegner MN, Landry E, Wilkinson D, Tzanis J. Men as partners in reproductive health: from issues to action. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 1998;24(1):38.

84- McCollum R et al. Exploring perceptions of community health policy in Kenya and identifying impli- cations for policy change. Health Policy and Planning. 2015;1–11.

85- Senyonjo M, Atenu E. Report on findings from Formative research on HIV Discordance. Health Communication Partnership. 2006.

86- Tsuma FC, Wekesa AS. Challenges Facing HIV Discordant Couples in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science. September 2014 .Vol. 5, No. 10 (1).

87- Wachira et al. Health facility barriers to HIV linkage and retention in Western Kenya. BMC Health Services Research. 2014;14:646.

88- Kagotho et al. “They make money off of us”: a phenomenological analysis of consumer perceptions of corruption in Kenya’s HIV response system. BMC Health Services Research. 2016;16:468.

89- Vidal L. Ritualités, santé et sida en Afrique. Pour une anthropologie du singulier. Collection Hommes et sociétés. Paris: Karthala; 2004.

90- Pafs J et al. ‘You try to play a role in her pregnancy’ - a qualitative study on recent fathers’ perspectives about childbearing and encounter with the maternal health system in Kigali, Rwanda. Glob Health Action. 2016;9:31482.

91- World AIDS Campaign. AIDS: Men make a difference. Men Can Change Course of AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. New Delhi; 6 March 2000.

92- Osoti A, Han H, Kinuthia J, Farquhar C. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Research and Reports in Neonatology. 2014;4 131–138.

93- Okech TC, Wawire NW, Mburu TK. Contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Kenya‘s city slums. Int J Bus Soc Sci. 2011;2: 22-43.

94- Obermeyer et al. HIV testing and care in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda: ethics on the ground. BMC International Health and Human Rights. 2013;13:6.

95- Desgrées-du-Loû A, Orne-Gliemann J. Couple-centred testing and counselling for HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Reproductive Health Matters. 16(32): 2008: 151–161.

96- Betancourt TS. Family-Centered Approaches to the Centered Approaches to the Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2010;13 Suppl 2 (Suppl 2):S2.

97- Myer L et al. Family Matters: Co-enrollment of Family Members Into Care Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for HIV-Infected Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;Vol 67, Supplement 4.

98- Hensen B. et al. Systematic review of strategies to increase men’s HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2014;28:2133-2145.

99- Novitsky V et al. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2015;18:19918.

100- Brown LB et al. HIV partner notification is effective and feasible in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities for HIV treatment and prevention. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2011;56(5):437-42.