humanitarian space https://www.msf-crash.org/en en Ending the Code of Silence on Abductions of Aid Workers https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/ending-code-silence-abductions-aid-workers <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2019-11-22T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">11/22/2019</time> </div> </div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/125" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">elba.msf</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2019-11-22T15:18:12+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 11/22/2019 - 16:18</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/professionalisation" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">professionalisation</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>This article was published in <a href="https://www.manchesteropenhive.com/view/journals/jha/jha-overview.xml" target="_blank" title="https://www.manchesteropenhive.com/view/journals/jha/jha-overview.xml">The Journal of Humanitarian Affairs</a> - May 2019.</em></p> <p>This article discusses the policy of absolute secrecy on abductions adopted by aid organisations. It argues that the information blackout on past and current cases is to a large extent a function of the growing role of private security companies in the aid sector, which promote a ‘pay, don’t say’ policy as a default option, whatever the situation. The article contends that secrecy is as much an impediment to resolving current cases as it is to preventing and managing future ones. It suggests abandoning the policy of strict confidentiality in all circumstances – a policy that is as dangerous as it is easy to apply – in favour of a more nuanced and challenging approach determining how much to publicise ongoing and past cases for each audience, always keeping in mind the interests of current and potential hostages.</p> <p><a href="https://www.manchesteropenhive.com/view/journals/jha/1/2/article-p38.xml" target="_blank" title="https://www.manchesteropenhive.com/view/journals/jha/1/2/article-p38.xml">Read the article</a></p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Fabrice Weissman, Ending the Code of Silence on Abductions of Aid Workers, 22 November 2019, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/ending-code-silence-abductions-aid-workers">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/ending-code-silence-abductions-aid-workers</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="height-computed field field--name-field-related-content field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related publications</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3746" role="article" about="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/aid-work-really-more-dangerous-ever-flawed-studies-wont-tell-us" class="node node--type-blog-post node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSB13461-donka-ebola-treatment.JPG?h=32b09715&amp;itok=YdsNsLo4" width="450" height="300" alt="The logistical teams proceed to the reorganisation of the Donka Ebola treatment center site" title="Is aid work really more dangerous than ever? " typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Julien Rey</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/aid-work-really-more-dangerous-ever-flawed-studies-wont-tell-us" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3746&amp;2=reading_list" token="bD83vmc4M9k3A_ElilLu1tYpLVZxckcNqSUmpXm9bUE"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Blog post</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/aid-work-really-more-dangerous-ever-flawed-studies-wont-tell-us" hreflang="en">Is aid work really more dangerous than ever? Flawed studies won’t tell us</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2016-04-15T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">04/15/2016</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" hreflang="en">Fabrice Weissman</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" hreflang="en">Michaël Neuman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since the 1990s and the rise of conflicts in West Africa, Somalia, Chechnya, the former Yugoslavia and Africa's Great Lakes region, humanitarian organisations have been warning of greater insecurity for their staff. These observations are bolstered by surveys aimed at objectively quantifying violence against humanitarian workers.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/aid-work-really-more-dangerous-ever-flawed-studies-wont-tell-us" rel="tag" title="Is aid work really more dangerous than ever? Flawed studies won’t tell us" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Is aid work really more dangerous than ever? Flawed studies won’t tell us</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3745" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/blog/guerre-et-humanitaire/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des" class="node node--type-blog-post node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF113152-emergency-room.JPG?h=0182dbee&amp;itok=DiBPCI4i" width="450" height="300" alt="Un panneau indique une salle d&#039;urgence" title="Secourir sans Périr. La sécurité humanitaire à l’ère de la gestion des risques" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Niklas Bergstrand</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3745" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3745&amp;2=reading_list" token="zR8zxWx3JqRK-9Pt7ohD2nwgk5RWbPkiOUUoW9iXTag"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Blog post</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/blog/guerre-et-humanitaire/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des" hreflang="fr">Secourir sans Périr. La sécurité humanitaire à l’ère de la gestion des risques</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2016-03-29T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">03/29/2016</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/michael-neuman" hreflang="fr">Michaël Neuman</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/fabrice-weissman" hreflang="fr">Fabrice Weissman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Le dernier livre en date du Crash "Secourir sans périr. La sécurité humanitaire à l'ère de la gestion des risques", co-dirigé par Michaël Neuman et Fabrice Weissman, sort le 31 mars chez CNRS Editions.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/blog/guerre-et-humanitaire/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des" rel="tag" title="Secourir sans Périr. La sécurité humanitaire à l’ère de la gestion des risques" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Secourir sans Périr. La sécurité humanitaire à l’ère de la gestion des risques</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3737" role="article" about="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/medical-care-really-under-fire-debate-humanitarian-security" class="node node--type-blog-post node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSB8506-msf-staff-killed-in-Boguila-hospital-compound.jpg?h=828c1f78&amp;itok=3s67DHkS" width="450" height="300" alt="MSF clinic located in M&#039;poko&#039;s IDP camp, near Bangui&#039;s airport in CAR" title="MSF staff killed by armed men in the Boguila hospital compound" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Samuel Hanryon</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/medical-care-really-under-fire-debate-humanitarian-security" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3737&amp;2=reading_list" token="NyNB8T-mF17_tcr72H8Hx1l-_OLm_K73Fv-m2D-1EeM"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Blog post</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/medical-care-really-under-fire-debate-humanitarian-security" hreflang="en">Is medical care really under fire? A debate on humanitarian security</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2014-11-21T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">11/21/2014</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" hreflang="en">Michaël Neuman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Is there anything fundamentally new in the security challenges faced by humanitarian organisations? When looking at the history of humanitarian assistance, as far back as the late 1800s, 'medical care' was operating under fire. </p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/medical-care-really-under-fire-debate-humanitarian-security" rel="tag" title="Is medical care really under fire? A debate on humanitarian security" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Is medical care really under fire? A debate on humanitarian security</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=7681" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=7681&amp;2=reading_list" token="nMz47nso9E7rJEtMgZygu9Q9vK-X9g4ftSMliW-XjCA"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Ending the Code of Silence on Abductions of Aid Workers</span> Fri, 22 Nov 2019 15:18:12 +0000 elba.msf 7681 at https://www.msf-crash.org Décryptage - Les risques du métier https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/blog/guerre-et-humanitaire/decryptage-les-risques-du-metier <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2016-07-26T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">07/26/2016</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 07/26/2016 - 16:53</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Michaël Neuman &amp; Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In recent years, fear-mongering reports based on hard data have been describing a world of ever-increasing danger for aid workers.<br /> The book "Saving lives and staying alive" explores this observation and compares it with MSF's experience of working in particularly dangerous regions.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <div class="videodetector"><iframe frameborder="0" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/pOadKSX7cI0?autohide=1&amp;controls=1&amp;showinfo=0"></iframe><input class="remove-videodetector" type="button" value="Remove video" /></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3754&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="ZKV5YINhi6gEmIhrmfh5MnJQpf11x6Tzq6nWV4HgeWY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3754&amp;2=reading_list" token="ej_rQo6KNsBFQ2dRY5dCd700Qpr4EP0sS2OBFStVaUs"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Michaël Neuman, Fabrice Weissman, Occupational hazards, 26 July 2016, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/occupational-hazards">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/occupational-hazards</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3754" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Occupational hazards</span> Tue, 26 Jul 2016 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3754 at https://www.msf-crash.org ATHA Podcast: Michaël Neuman about "Saving Lives and Staying Alive" https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-michael-neuman-about-saving-lives-and-staying-alive <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2016-05-12T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">05/12/2016</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 05/12/2016 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/statistics" hreflang="en">statistics</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/professionalisation" hreflang="en">professionalisation</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Michaël Neuman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In this Practitioner Profile, <a href="http://www.atha.se/">ATHA</a>&nbsp;is joined by Michaël Neuman, the director of studies at Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Centre de réflexion sur l'action et les savoirs humanitaires (MSF-Crash). MSF-Crash conducts and directs studies and analysis of MSF actions with the purpose of inspiring debate and critical reflection on field practices and public positions. Michaël joined MSF in 1999, alternating between missions in the field (the Balkans, the Caucasus and West Africa) and positions at MSF headquarters (in New York and Paris as deputy program manager). His work has also addressed political analysis and issues of immigration and geopolitics.</p> <p>In a new book published by MSF entitled, "Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management," Michaël and his colleague Fabrice Weissman analyze some of the drivers of professionalization in the context of humanitarian security and its subsequent impact on humanitarian practices through a collection of MSF case studies.</p> <p><a href="http://d7f2563348956cb506b0-1cd606ba6faf184e36ffe1988297461d.r13.cf1.rackcdn.com/haw51-1.mp3" target="_blank"><strong>LISTEN THE PODCAST ON ATHA</strong></a></p> <p>Below is an excerpt of our conversation:</p> <p><strong>Q: I wanted to dive right into some of the more recent news concerning the protection of aid workers in the field. On May 3, which at the time of this recording is just yesterday, the international president of MSF, Dr. Joanne Liu <a href="http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/address-dr-joanne-liu-united-nations-security-council-may-3-2016" target="_blank">testified</a>&nbsp;before the UN Security Council stating that attacks not only on medical clinics, but also on schools, places of worship, and markets had become rather chillingly routine and that medical facilities on the frontlines in a number of places like Afghanistan, South Sudan, Yemen and Ukraine are "routinely bombed, raided, looted or burned to the ground." Dr. Liu referred to this current state of affairs as a "deadly impasse." I wondered if you wouldn't mind sharing with us some of your initial thoughts on her testimony?</strong></p> <p>A: I think there's no doubt we've been facing... a lot of those attacks, in places such as Syria and Yemen, for instance, with the very shocking evidence of the Kunduz hospital being bombed last October. One of my reservations on those campaigns such as the "Not a Target" campaign that was initiated recently by MSF or the "Health Care in Danger" campaign by the Red Cross, or the "Protect Aid Workers" campaign by ACF, is that they might divert us from analysis of the context in which these attacks happen. What were these organizations doing at the times they were there? What was the state of their relationship with the different stakeholders? The role of humanitarian organizations is to act in war situations, so we make decisions that expose our staff and personnel. We have a responsibility to reflect on the circumstances in which incidents occur, going beyond just pure denunciation of the perpetrators. And I believe that whole dynamic of denunciation might come at the expense of thoroughly reviewing the incidents themselves.</p> <p><strong>Q: And on this topic, there was also a very compelling op-ed that ran in the New York Times on May 4 by a general surgeon named Osama Abo El Ezz who is the Aleppo coordinator for the Syrian American Medical Society. It's titled, "<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/opinion/in-aleppo-we-are-running-out-of-coffins.html" target="_blank">In Aleppo, We Are Running Out of Coffins</a>" and paints an incredibly grim picture of the current situation in that city. In this piece he writes, "what was once the universal sanctity of medical neutrality has been eviscerated." In your opinion, how does the concept of "medical neutrality" hold up in today's conflicts and to what extent is it still valid or effective?</strong></p> <p>A: Well, I would be very worried to make a general statement on that question. As I've said before, the conflict in Syria is a very crude illustration of a conflict where multiple stakeholders and warring factions are actually violating medical structures on a daily basis. The responsibility of the Syrian government is particularly acute in that, but they're not the only ones. Last week in the attack that affected one of the hospitals that is supported by MSF and also the ICRC, one of the last pediatricians of the city of Aleppo died. Most of the doctors in Syria have left the country, many have died, including many staff working with MSF, and I think there has been a total disregard for impartial medical action in Syria. That is very, very clear. Whether that applies to other conflicts, well, it really depends. I don't think that we can say there has been a time where medical neutrality was ever protected, and as far as we go back in history, hospitals have been attacked during wars. It was the case in the Franco-Prussian war in the 1870s. Yes, war is a very dirty thing... the idea that IHL could be respected to a point where war becomes clean? I think [that is] absurd. It's delusional and it interferes with the political work that needs to be done on the field to negotiate and really protect some kind of space in our operations.</p> <p><strong>Q: I'd like to turn now to a new book that you and your colleague Fabrice Weissman recently published called "Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management." This book is a collection of MSF case studies through which you analyze some of the drivers of professionalization in the context of humanitarian security and its subsequent impact on humanitarian practices. Could you tell us a little bit about why you decided to write this book and what you hope readers will take away from it?</strong></p> <p>A: It's research that got started a few years ago when MSF... got worried about a deterioration of aid security environments. We had some staff killed in Somalia from the Belgian section of Mogadishu at the end 2011, there were colleagues kidnapped in Kenya and Somalia. The threat of kidnapping emerged as being really, really problematic. Discussions around profiling of staff and remote management [were] gaining ground in the organization. We were also concerned by what was perceived to be a rise in security incidents worldwide affecting humanitarian workers and in addition to that there was a growing pressure to "professionalize humanitarian security." "Professionalize" meaning providing more training, having security personnel with specific experience and skills to actually manage security in the field and "professionalize" meaning building databases that could help us predict incidents that could arise from working in these war zones.</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3802&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="_xPihJjF8X_Zv8QZI_L5eHVw4sNcMU0NVEfV4tViOrM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3802&amp;2=reading_list" token="VJbFGoKK4MvdAqCLFH4MnafuFQoY2qH0RlIf4FLUxjE"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Michaël Neuman, ATHA Podcast: Michaël Neuman about &quot;Saving Lives and Staying Alive&quot;, 12 May 2016, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-michael-neuman-about-saving-lives-and-staying-alive">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-michael-neuman-about-saving-lives-and-staying-alive</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3802" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">ATHA Podcast: Michaël Neuman about &quot;Saving Lives and Staying Alive&quot;</span> Thu, 12 May 2016 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3802 at https://www.msf-crash.org The numbness of numbers https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/numbness-numbers-0 <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2016-05-11T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">05/11/2016</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/11/2016 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/statistics" hreflang="en">statistics</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Michaël Neuman &amp; Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We welcome <a href="http://www.msf-crash.org/en/sur-le-vif/2016/07/13/7362/data-are-not-dangerous-a-response-to-recent-msf-crash-critiques/" target="_blank">Abby Stoddard, Katherine Haver and Adele Harmer's response</a> to our critical article on the production and the use of security data in the humanitarian sector and to our <a href="http://msf-crash.org/livres/en/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/humanitarian-security-in-the-age-of-risk-management" target="_blank">book</a> in general. In a field that has been very much lacking debate, if not controversies, we're extremely glad to see a various range of readers engaging in the discussion. After reading their comments, we might have to acknowledge that what we have here are two very distinct visions of what humanitarian security should look like. These two positions might not be irreconcilable, but for now they are quite far from one another. On the one hand, Humanitarian Outcomes consultants behind the development of the Aid Worker Security Database believe in the intrinsic value of nchapumbers in making humanitarian workers, policy makers and the general public aware of the ‘occupational' risks, as much as they believe in contemporary risk management as the right way to minimize these risks. On the other hand, we, as authors of "Saving Lives and Staying Alive', are wary of both.</p> <p>In their response, the three authors take issue with our way of analyzing their work. Rather than engaging in a series of quote-based endless exchange, we would advise readers interested in the issue to read the book - especially the <a href="http://msf-crash.org/livres/en/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/2-theories" target="_blank">chapters</a>&nbsp;dedicated to numbers and guidelines - and make their own mind.</p> <p>However, central to their argument is the idea that "numbers are neutral" and "guidelines simply tools". Using analytical frameworks developed by sociologists such as <a href="http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674009691" target="_blank">Alain Desrosieres</a>, <a href="http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5653.html#reviews" target="_blank">Theodore M. Porter</a> and <a href="http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/A/bo20847647.html" target="_blank">Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan</a>, we argue the contrary. We show that datasets are not neutral from a methodological, ethical and political point of view. The definition and encoding of the measured variables are the result of conventions, negotiations, interpretations, power struggles, influence strategies, that are historically located. In this regard, we demonstrate that the AWSD as well as other quantification exercise of insecurity are primarily driven by the desire to "support with evidence" three preconceived ideas: that the "humanitarian space is shrinking", that aid actors are increasingly targeted for political reasons, and that humanitarian workers should entrust the management of their security to professional experts.</p> <p>Having deconstructed the "shrinking humanitarian space" and the "blurring of lines" narratives in our previous book (<a href="http://msf-crash.org/livres/en/humanitarian-negotiations-revealed" target="_blank">Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed, The MSF Experience</a>), our most recent opus is mainly dedicated to the neoliberal security management ideology supported by manuals such as the GPR8. In this regard, Abby Stoddard, Katherine Haver and Adele Harmer are right to say that most aid personnel do not follow blindly such security manuals and are still using their own judgment and personal agency. But, as we illustrate through <a href="http://msf-crash.org/livres/en/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/3-practices" target="_blank">three empirical studies</a> and <a href="http://msf-crash.org/livres/en/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/1-history" target="_blank">two historical accounts</a>, they do so despite the tremendous pressure toward centralization and authoritarian control of their behavior and public expression promoted by security manuals.</p> <p>One more time, we would invite all those interested, especially aid volunteers working at headquarters and field levels to read the book and tell us if we are so far away from their experience.</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3749&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="xS9XuOiIeyLmHEpQRx-qpvPxjYXYQ1VGvp36car-4Fg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3749&amp;2=reading_list" token="GO7l5ogPpUudsuGpi8emiko3ljjdGKHcYsjdExVFk_s"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Michaël Neuman, Fabrice Weissman, The numbness of numbers, 11 May 2016, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/numbness-numbers-0">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/numbness-numbers-0</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3749" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">The numbness of numbers</span> Wed, 11 May 2016 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3749 at https://www.msf-crash.org Secourir sans périr: la sécurité humanitaire à l'ère de la gestion des risques https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2016-03-29T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">03/29/2016</time> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/12" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">nicolas.l</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 03/29/2016 - 02:00</span> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Michaël Neuman, Fabrice Weissman, Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management, 29 March 2016, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/saving-lives-and-staying-alive-humanitarian-security-age-risk">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/saving-lives-and-staying-alive-humanitarian-security-age-risk</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/statistics" hreflang="en">statistics</a></div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=4096" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Michaël Neuman &amp; Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>The entire book in Arabic can be <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/CRASH%2C%202016%2C%20Saving%20Lives%20and%20Staying%20Alive_Arabic-final_0.pdf" target="_blank">downloaded in PDF format</a></em>.&nbsp;</p> <p>When MSF nurse Chantal Kaghoma regained her freedom in August 2014 after being held hostage for thirteen months by rebel group ADF (Allied Defence Forces) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, she said, “While I was in prison with all the other hostages, I had lost all faith in everyone. Deep down, I no longer believed in MSF. I thought to myself, ‘Well, it’s all over now; this is the end.’” Then she added, “But, even though I no longer believed in MSF, I found myself coming to its defence.” Three of our colleagues are still being held by the ADF and the organisation continues its efforts to track down their location and secure their release. A specially dedicated team has been working tirelessly for more than two years with the firm conviction that a positive outcome is possible.</p> <p>This example reflects the principles that guide MSF in managing the security of its international and national staff. Chantal, like any MSF volunteer, is aware of the risks inherent to our deployment of relief operations in environments destabilised by war, epidemics or natural disasters. While there is no such thing as zero risk, she also knows that our practices are geared towards reducing danger. We gauge these dangers against the results we expect to achieve with the populations we serve and launch operations only when we are able to clearly identify the authorities with whom we can negotiate the safe access we require to deliver our medical assistance. We also endeavour to put together teams suited to the settings in which we work, in terms of numbers and skills. Lastly, and maybe most importantly for Chantal’s colleagues who are still being held captive, MSF does everything in its power to secure as quickly as possible the release of its staff.</p> <p>We firmly believe that, for our relief operations to be effective and serve their intended purpose, we must rely largely on teams of volunteers assisting people in the field. Since the organisation was founded in 1971, violence has claimed the lives of thirteen international personnel and many more national staff members. Over the past few years, MSF’s French section has experienced numerous security incidents, including kidnappings, robberies and attacks on our hospitals. We have developed a number of tools for managing security: an incident database created by the Belgian section in 2009 was rolled out in 2013; specific security modules have been added to existing staff training programmes; and we have updated our official policy on risk-taking in the field, which reaffirms the principles shared by all members of the Association. Lastly, we have produced a handbook that provides guidelines on kidnap resolution. All of these responsibilities are assigned to a “security focal point”, a position created for the first time in our section’s history in 2013.</p> <p>We are not, however, completely satisfied with these developments. We are especially concerned about the exponential growth of procedures and docu-ments designed to oversee the work of our colleagues in the field. Many of these procedures and training courses convey the impression that the inap-propriate behaviour of volunteers is primarily to blame for any violence com-mitted against them. This perspective holds that they need to work under the supervision of a higher authority, particularly that of managers at headquarters wanting to follow security-expert recommendations to the letter. I do not share this view and I hope that the organisation is able to distance itself from such a centralised and dehumanised approach to humanitarian action.</p> <p>In saying this, I am well aware that we are not always able to do better than others in meeting all the challenges involved in keeping our volunteers safe. We cannot deploy international staff to Syria or work in Somalia and we were probably overly cautious in our response to the Ebola epidemic. We have, however, been effective in other dangerous situations: in Gaza during Israel’s “Protective Edge” military operation; in Central African Republic; and, more recently, in the centre of war-torn Yemeni city Aden.</p> <p>We must analyse unsparingly our past experiences and draw the necessary conclusions to improve our practices. For that reason, I asked CRASH to con-tribute to the reflection on staff security and the place of risk management in our projects. This book is the result and I share both its findings and its perspectives.</p> <p>Its findings, because they show that the dominant risk-management culture is not up to the task of providing convincing answers to the concerns of aid workers. And its perspectives, because I am convinced that we can better ensure team and project security by placing our trust in those who run the projects in the field and that we, as a group, must show ourselves to be capable of discussing openly and collectively each of our very unique experiences.</p> <p>You can read this book online. <a href="http://www.hurstpublishers.com/book/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/" target="_blank">You can also buy it</a>.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-chapters field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques-1" hreflang="en">Introduction</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques/about" hreflang="en">About The Authors</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques" hreflang="en">Acknowledgements</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques-0" hreflang="en">Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques/1-history" hreflang="en">1. History</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques/2-theories" hreflang="en">2. Theories</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/secourir-sans-perir-la-securite-humanitaire-lere-de-la-gestion-des-risques/3-practices" hreflang="en">3. Practices</a></div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4096&amp;2=reading_list" token="cRMkgAoW2nuub2TjEI_3PMNxm_fO-YFdXvsQvvKRESs"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management</span> Tue, 29 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0000 nicolas.l 4096 at https://www.msf-crash.org Soon released! Saving Lives and Staying Alive https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/soon-released-saving-lives-and-staying-alive <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2016-02-08T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">02/08/2016</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 02/08/2016 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/professionalisation" hreflang="en">professionalisation</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/statistics" hreflang="en">statistics</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/duty-care" hreflang="en">duty of care</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Fabrice Weissman &amp; Michaël Neuman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The latest book from Crash "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" will out very soon!</p> <p>Most humanitarian aid organisations now have departments specifically dedicated to protecting the security of their personnel and assets. The management of humanitarian security has gradually become the business of professionals who develop data collection systems, standardised procedures, norms, and training meant to prevent and manage risks.</p> <p>Most humanitarian aid organisations now have departments specifically dedicated to protecting the security of their personnel and assets. The management of humanitarian security has gradually become the business of professionals who develop data collection systems, standardised procedures, norms, and training meant to prevent and manage risks.</p> <p>A large majority of aid agencies and security experts see these developments as inevitable - all the more so because of quantitative studies and media reports concluding that the dangers to which aid workers are today exposed are completely unprecedented. Yet, this trend towards professionalisation is also raising questions within aid organisations, MSF included. Can insecurity be measured by scientific means and managed through norms and protocols? How does the professionalisation of security affect the balance of power between field and headquarters, volunteers and the institution that employs them? What is its impact on the implementation of humanitarian organisations' social mission? Are there alternatives to the prevailing security model(s) derived from the corporate world?</p> <p>Building on MSF's experience and observations of the aid world by academics and practitioners, the authors of this book look at the drivers of the professionalisation of humanitarian security and its impact on humanitarian practices, with a specific focus on Syria, CAR and kidnapping in the Caucasus.</p> <p><strong>Find out more on&nbsp;<a href="http://www.hurstpublishers.com/book/saving-lives-and-staying-alive/" target="_blank">our publisher's website</a></strong></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3793&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="zcTrdJBK8Q6FoOvvx-W6shjIPYm4WrEhZ5th9FW_3vM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3793&amp;2=reading_list" token="R-_Hw1OyxZq1AzI9ZUv3ieFvVIcMG2oKqm0hBGElTTw"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Fabrice Weissman, Michaël Neuman, Soon released! Saving Lives and Staying Alive, 8 February 2016, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/soon-released-saving-lives-and-staying-alive">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/soon-released-saving-lives-and-staying-alive</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3793" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Soon released! Saving Lives and Staying Alive</span> Mon, 08 Feb 2016 01:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3793 at https://www.msf-crash.org ATHA Podcast: Perspectives on Access: Engaging with Non-State Armed Groups https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-perspectives-access-engaging-non-state-armed-groups <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2015-10-22T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">10/22/2015</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 10/22/2015 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-negotiations" hreflang="en">humanitarian negotiations</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/non-state-armed-groups" hreflang="en">non-state armed groups</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Michaël Neuman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3257" role="article" about="/en/michael-neuman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4167%20copie_0.jpg?itok=uJXHTXNJ" width="180" height="230" alt="Michaël Neuman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Michaël</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Neuman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Director of studies at Crash / Médecins sans Frontières, Michaël Neuman graduated in Contemporary History and International Relations (University Paris-I). He joined Médecins sans Frontières in 1999 and has worked both on the ground (Balkans, Sudan, Caucasus, West Africa) and in headquarters (New York, Paris as deputy director responsible for programmes). He has also carried out research on issues of immigration and geopolitics. He is co-editor of "Humanitarian negotiations Revealed, the MSF experience" (London: Hurst and Co, 2011). He is also the co-editor of "Saving lives and staying alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (London: Hurst and Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/michael-neuman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Gaining and maintaining access and proximity to beneficiaries is crucial to humanitarian assistance. In order to ensure the safety and protection of civilians, particularly in non-international armed conflicts, the international legal and humanitarian communities have attempted to apply humanitarian rules developed for armed conflicts between states to internal conflicts with armed groups. Yet in many of today's operating environments, reliable humanitarian access is increasingly difficult to create and maintain due to the complex legal and political tensions. Humanitarian organizations working in these spaces must therefore overcome immense challenges in order to negotiate an operational space for engagement with armed groups that is in line with the humanitarian principles.</p> <p>In conversations with key experts and practitioners in the field, this podcast will explore perspectives on humanitarian engagement with non-state armed groups with a focus on challenges of access. Using contemporary examples such as Afghanistan and Yemen, the panelists will discuss key dilemmas of access faced by humanitarian aid workers in the field and reflect on practical and policy solutions that may be developed in order to ensure proximity to civilian populations in need. This podcast will also examine also explore how non-state armed groups perceive humanitarian actors, and the consequences of such perceptions for agency engagement.</p> <p>Through discussions with high-level practitioners and experts in this field, the podcast will address the following questions:</p> <p>What are the key dilemmas involved in humanitarian engagement with non-state armed groups around access?<br /> <br /> How do non-state armed groups perceive humanitarian actors, and what are the consequences of such perceptions for humanitarian access in complex environments?<br /> <br /> What lessons can be drawn from humanitarian practitioners' experiences in obtaining and maintaining access through engagement with non-state armed groups?</p> <p>This podcast features expert commentary from:<br /> <br /> <strong>Ashley Jackson</strong>, Research Associate, Overseas Development Institute (ODI)<br /> <strong>Michaël Neuman</strong>, Director of Studies, MSF-Crash<br /> <strong>Jonathan Somer</strong>, Founder, Personal Grata Consulting<br /> <strong>Eva Svoboda</strong>, Research Fellow, Humanitarian Policy Group</p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.atha.se/webcast/perspectives-access-engaging-non-state-armed-groups" target="_blank">LISTEN ON ATHA</a></strong></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3795&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="p4dyl5PzHaDYOL_6OVfJ1lbO2C_wFQU8jEjheuw_QxY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3795&amp;2=reading_list" token="YRmOo4blFrynxg1PNXhNzovDEXl7eIoqu12wFaWDzwE"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Michaël Neuman, ATHA Podcast: Perspectives on Access: Engaging with Non-State Armed Groups, 22 October 2015, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-perspectives-access-engaging-non-state-armed-groups">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/atha-podcast-perspectives-access-engaging-non-state-armed-groups</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3795" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">ATHA Podcast: Perspectives on Access: Engaging with Non-State Armed Groups</span> Thu, 22 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3795 at https://www.msf-crash.org Croissance et inquiétudes des organisations humanitaires https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/croissance-et-inquietudes-des-organisations-humanitaires <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2015-01-30T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">01/30/2015</time> </div> </div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/64" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Corinne-03</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2017-04-16T17:40:45+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 04/16/2017 - 19:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/risk-management" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">risk management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/financing" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">financing</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/european-union" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">European Union</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/united-nations" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">United Nations</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/icrc" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">ICRC</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/military-humanitarian-relations" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">military-humanitarian relations</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perverse-effects-and-limits-aid" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">perverse effects and limits of aid</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span>Interview with Fabrice Weissman</span>&nbsp;in&nbsp;<em>Revue Internationale et Stratégique <span>(n°98, 2015/2) published by the Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques</span></em><br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – The humanitarian sector is in a period of significant change, tugged by multiple currents. Some observers believe that in- depth reforms are necessary, while others take a more measured position. Do you think that humanitarianism must reinvent itself?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – I am skeptical about the prevailing pessimism and the observation that humanitarianism is in crisis. In 2013, $22 billion was spent on emergency humanitarian aid and funding increases every year. At MSF, our budget has doubled every 10 years. It reached US1.4 billion in 2014. The budget of the World Food Programme (WFP) has grown six-fold since the 1980s. In financial terms, the sector is thus growing rapidly. The same is true for human resources. There are more humanitarian aid workers than ever in conflict zones. With more than 10,000 permanent employees, WFP staff has increased nearly ten-fold since the mid 199O’s. In Central African Republic MSF alone deploys 300 expatriates and 2 000 national staff. We are conducting massive aid operations in war zones and, according to studies on the lethality of conflicts by the University of Uppsala, for example, the number of violent deaths and indirect mortality associated with conflict (from malnutrition and illness) are falling. Infant mortality has been declining steadily since the 1980s in nearly all countries at war. According to Uppsala University, the unprecedented development of international aid activity is one explanation for this drop in mortality.</p> <p>We have seen the phenomenal progress of the WFP, both in terms of the quality of foodstuffs and capacity in deployment and logistics projection. Ten years ago, in Darfur, nearly 2 million people were displaced over a six-month period. The WFP set up a large- scale aid effort at that time, reaching approximately 100 camps and thus helping to prevent widespread famine. The “Plumpy’nut” revolution also had a significant impact on efforts to combat childhood malnutrition. In 2013, MSF treated more than 230,000 malnourished children with ready-to-use therapeutic foods, compared to several tens of thousands in the early 2000s.</p> <p>So I think this characterization of a sector in decline is somewhat myopic. If we compare the humanitarian sector today to the end of the 1980s and even 1990s, there have been major advances in terms of both resources and aid to victims.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERSEROLI – The critics are focusing less on the volume of aid and the number of people who receive help and more on the operating methods and how the sector works and interacts with populations and civil society. How can non-governmental organizations address the challenges of the 21st century?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – I’m not saying that the picture is entirely rosy. We clearly face serious challenges. This positive inventory should not allow us to overlook the existence of many situations of extreme violence, characterized by catastrophic mortality rates due to massacre or lack of vital assistance. I am thinking of Syria today and the Central African Republic last year. Studies conducted by Epicentre found that 10% of the population that fled to Chad was killed in a few weeks. I am also thinking of South Sudan, where large- scale massacres occurred in 2014. Mortality in South Sudanese refugee camps in Ethiopia remained very high for months, in part due to the restrictions imposed by the Ethiopian government.</p> <p>In Syria, it is extremely difficult to deploy assistance outside the framework established by the government, which placed very tight controls on the nature and distribution of aid, resulting in a total medical embargo affecting the rebel-held areas. The United Nations did not receive authorization from the Security Council until 2014 to conduct cross-border aid operations in rebel-held areas from neighboring countries. That coincided with the expansion of the Islamic State, which created other problems in relation to controlling humanitarian aid.</p> <p>There have always been efforts to coopt humanitarian aid for criminal uses, of course. When the Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire were attacked by Laurent Kabila’s fighters and their Rwandan allies in 1996-1997, humanitarian aid workers were used as bloodhounds to track fleeing refugees, who were then killed by death squads who saw them as potential genocidaires. Thus, enlisting humanitarian aid workers in criminal strategies is not a new tactic, but the phenomenon follows new patterns in every conflict. One of the main challenges is to first acknowledge the existence of these situations – both internally and publicly – and resist them.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – Can this challenge be met?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – It can, even if it means abstaining in certain cases. That is the decision MSF has made with regard to the Islamic State, for example. The humanitarian sector’s weapon of last resort is abstention and withdrawal.</p> <p>You raised the question of civil societies’ involvement in relief activities and how humanitarian workers can compensate for the asymmetry of power between those who give and those who receive. Indeed, asymmetry is inherent to the humanitarian relationship. But in countries such as Ethiopia, Sri Lanka, or Zimbabwe, for example, it is counter-balanced by the power of extremely strong States, which have the capacity to hold aid actors accountable and seek - often successfully - to subject us to their interests. And their notion of their populations’ interests is often very far from our priorities. We are not all-powerful. However, we do have to be more transparent about our successes, our failures, and how we apply the principles that we uphold.</p> <p>Independence? Aid organizations do not float out there in some moral and legal ether. Being independent means choosing upon whom one is dependent. Which political forces should we rely on in Yemen or the Central African Republic to protect our hospitals and guarantee that ambulances can circulate freely? All these choices must be discussed.</p> <p>Impartiality? The Ebola epidemic was a good example of the ethico-practical debates overshadowed by the rhetoric about principles. Who should be prioritized? Should we emphasize prevention from a utilitarian perspective (the greatest good for the greatest number) or treatment (help the most vulnerable, that is, those who are already ill)? And this, knowing that there were constraints on resources and biosafety for medical staff, which meant that we could not have, simultaneously, the most extensive preventive strategy possible and the most comprehensive treatment strategy possible.</p> <p>Clarity and transparency are essential here. MSF’s work in the countries affected by Ebola was successful in that it constituted a major deployment in the face of an epidemic of unprecedented scale that posed an extreme danger to medical staff. On the other hand, transparency was lacking on crucial issues such as the best way to reconcile public health and individual care requirements. In this kind of health crisis, one of the conditions of success is reaching an agreement with civil society; that is, building trust with the population so that people will comply with unusual and restrictive public health measures. This involves explaining our dilemmas, trade-offs and choices.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – Ebola led to a courageous process of self-criticism within MSF.</strong><span class="annotation">In December 10, several MSF leaders wrote an internal letter criticizing “a form of non-assistance to persons in danger.” They stated, in particular, that the safety of medical staff had taken precedence over the quality of medical care provided to patients. Cf. « Rony Brauman : contre Ebola, ‘le traitement symptomatique a parfois été négligé, voire oublié’ », Libération (Paris, France), 3 February 2015, <a href="http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-oublie_1194960"> </a><a href="http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-oublie_1194960" target="_blank">http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-</a><a href="http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-oublie_1194960"> </a><a href="http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-oublie_1194960">oublie_1194960</a><a href="http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/02/03/parfois-le-traitement-symptomatique-a-ete-neglige-voire-oublie_1194960">.</a></span><br /> <strong><span>What were the conclusions of these analyses?</span></strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – The evaluation of the response to the Ebola epidemic is still underway. However, one of the lessons that we can already learn from the epidemic (or that it recalls for us, in any case) involves innovation and the conditions that promote it. Everyone in the world of humanitarian action supports innovation. But we forget that this has always been a conflictual process. For example, placing African AIDS patients on anti- retroviral drugs in the early 2000s and the large-scale use of ready-to-use therapeutic foods during Niger’s 2005 nutrition crisis are now unanimously considered positive developments. However, they were very controversial when implemented initially, including and especially within MSF.</p> <p>Innovation is a mechanism that arouses heated debate. It requires breaking with established habits and taking risks. We cannot innovate without discussion and debate. However, the humanitarian environment is very consensual and controversy is disparaged. We hesitate to expose our debates and try to keep them locked up internally. In doing so, we stifle the process of innovation. We need controversies, disagreements, and arguments if we are going to improve aid. We must reflect on and respond to dissent because it is productive.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – The report, <em>Aid Worker Security 2014</em>,</strong><span class="annotation">Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer et Kathleen Ryou, <em>Aid Worker Security Report 2014. Unsafe Passage: Road attacks and their impact on humanitarian operations</em>, Washington, USAID, August 2014.</span><strong>describes worsening security conditions for humanitarian aid. Have the dangers really increased or, rather, do NGOs have a heightened aversion to risk?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – This report actually says that the incidence of attacks is stable. Between 1997 and 2012, the number of victims ranged between 50 and 60 per year for every 100,000 humanitarian aid workers. The absolute number increased – that is, the number of victims – but in relative terms, the stability is quite striking. This refutes the assumption that more people have died with regard to the number of persons exposed.</p> <p>The second point highlighted by this database is that three-quarters of the accidents are concentrated in five or six countries, including the two Sudan, Syria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. I don’t think the situation is more catastrophic than in the past, but the threats are changing. We are no longer exposed to the same dangers. Working in Afghanistan in the 1980s meant the risk of being struck by Red Army carpet bombing. Today, the risk today is associated more with the rivalries between Afghan factions and groups claiming links with transnational jihadism. In that regard, the planetary conflict between transnational armed Salafist groups and the rest of the world and calls for killings and kidnappings of Western nationals fuels a less localized and more widespread threat that covers large swath of the Sahel, Northern Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East.</p> <p>I think that what we see in the aid environment is less a risk aversity than a responsibility aversity to use Michael Power’s wording.<span class="annotation">In reference to Michael Power, The Risk Management of Everything. Rethinking the politics of uncertainty&nbsp;<a href="http://www.demos.co.uk/files/riskmanagementofeverything.pdf" target="_blank">(London: Demos, 2004) http://www.demos.co.uk/files/riskmanagementofeverything.pdf</a></span>Humanitarian organizations fear being held responsible by public opinion, the courts, <span>or donors for a security accident affecting their employees. There is much greater pressure to protect the institution from legal proceedings and so called reputational risk. This affects how security is managed. At MSF, we have an increasing number of “security” initiatives that, in my view, are designed not to address potential operational problems, but to prove, possibly in court or before public opinion, that MSF takes its employees’ security seriously. There is a desire to standardize security management, guided by considerations that have more to do with protecting the institution than with protecting employees and maintaining operations. This is an aversion to institutional, reputational, and legal risk.</span><br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – In that regard, there seems to be a gap between the risk perceived by headquarters and the teams in the field. Do NGOs place the security of their teams above their commitment to the populations?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – There has indeed been a shift in the assumption of responsibility towards headquarters, but headquarters is not always more conservative than the field. However, I think that the people who are in the best position to make security-related decisions are those who will feel the consequences and are in direct contact with their environment. There is certainly a personal dimension, specific to each individual in the field. It could be dangerous to standardize and transfer decisions to headquarters. It could lead to very conservative decision making that would constrain the teams; or, to the contrary, headquarters could push the teams to take unjustified risks. I’m not saying that the teams in the field should make decisions entirely on their own. They must be able to explain their analysis of the situation to headquarters, which in turn must confirm that the analysis makes sense, and stop them if it appears that they are going too far and the price is too steep. But headquarters should not take over for the teams in managing security - it should give the red light, not the green light. The trend toward the “professionalization” of security management tends to shift it to headquarters, which can prove dangerous both for operations and staff security.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI - In the 1980s, MSF participated in efforts that involved non-neutral assistance, working with just one side in the conflict, in Angola, Eritrea, and Afghanistan. This offered better protection to the teams. Does this mean that security outweighs impartiality?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – This wasn’t entirely a choice. We were working primarily with the rebels because the governments were not interested in working with us. That said, we still felt that we were impartial, because the needs were greater among the populations living in the rebel areas. This also went hand-in-hand with the ideological commitment of some MSF leaders at the time who viewed the anti-communist guerillas as fighting for freedom against totalitarianism. They were on the side of the oppressed confronting an oppressive government. It seemed normal to them that the oppressor would deny them access and that the oppressed would have the greater need. Unlike the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which did not want to intervene without the governments’ approval, we chose to go ahead even if the government was opposed, precisely because there were significant needs and virtually no aid.</p> <p>When MSF decided to enter opposition-controlled areas in Syria clandestinely in the second half of 2012, some people saw that as taking a political position. In fact, by criminalizing assistance to the populations living in rebel-held areas, the government transformed impartial humanitarian action into a partisan commitment. From our perspective, our choice was guided by the desire to go where the needs were the greatest and where there was no international humanitarian response.</p> <p>In Angola and Afghanistan in the 1980s, the guerilla movements handled the logistics of our movements and our resupply. In a way, working with one side meant that we were less exposed. In the 1990s, when we began to seek a presence on all sides in Liberia, Angola, Somalia, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and elsewhere, security management became more complicated. We had to manage it ourselves then and deal with the fears and suspicions of various parties. As a result, contrary to the widespread notion that humanitarian principles offer protection, having a presence on both sides can create a more unstable situation in the relationship with authorities and can be complicated in security terms. Neutrality does not guarantee protection in and of itself. If you want to be safe, you are better off choosing your side and avoiding the places where it is contested.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – So is MSF’s position to choose a side or to adapt its decisions to the context?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – Working on just one side doesn’t necessarily mean choosing a camp. It can be the best compromise possible in order to assist populations in danger. At least that’s the position we took in the publication, <em>Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed</em>.<span class="annotation">Claire Magone, Michael Neuman, Fabrice Weissman (ed.), <em>Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience </em><a href="http://www.msf-crash.org/livres/en/humanitarian-negotiations-" target="_blank">(London: Hurst &amp; Co, 2011)</a>, http://www.msf-crash.org/livres/en/humanitarian-negotiations- revealed</span>Impartiality remains our guiding principle, even if its operational implementation lacks the self-evidence and transparency that we ascribe to it: Which victims should be given priority? The answer is never obvious, including in health catastrophes, where mortality rates should govern our choices, theoretically, as during the Ebola crisis. In Darfur, where I was head of mission in 2005-2006 and 2008, should we have given priority to working in the displaced persons’ camps, which provided access to the most people, although they were in relatively good health at the time? Or should we have sought out the small groups who had not been able to flee and were clearly in a much more precarious situation? Impartiality does not provide a ready-made answer to these questions. One consideration to take into account is the political authorities with whom we will be able to negotiate. Who will be able to facilitate our work, starting from the principle that the political exploitation of aid fuels negotiations? If we are not politically useful, there is no reason for a government or a rebel group to let us carry out our work. To put it blankly, our security and more generally our operational space depends upon our ability to find a decent way to be more useful alive than dead to armed men and powerful politicians. The issue is thus not determining whether we are being manipulated, but whether the manipulation is acceptable.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – Syria raises the issue of access to victims. In that regard, what is your position in terms of the religious groups described as terrorists?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – The problem is not whether a group is described as terrorist, but whether it allows us enough space to assess the situation and respond adequately to the needs that we define as priority. We must consider the severity of the crisis and ask ourselves how cooperation with such an authority would enable us to respond. Next, we need to consider the cost in terms of possible misuse of our resources, the risk to the security of teams and patients, and the freedom to speak out and control the kinds of actions we want to take.</p> <p>In Syria, we are currently working in territory controlled by Islamist groups such as Ahrar al-Sham. Our Syrian teams have a relatively independent and autonomous view of the needs and have the flexibility necessary to operate the hospitals in keeping with medical ethics. Furthermore, our MSF Belgium colleagues are supporting networks of Syrian doctors in areas inaccessible to the organization. They have enough confidence in their contacts to ensure that the resources they provide are used properly.</p> <p>With regards to populations living under the authority of the Islamic State, we do not currently have the autonomy necessary to ensure that our assistance could benefit them first. However, the situation does not appear to be catastrophic from the demographic perspective. If we were seeing adult malnutrition or the large-scale use, once again, of chemical weapons, that would change the equation. We might conclude that we needed to make additional compromises because large numbers of people were dying. Based on the information that we are able to obtain, particularly from the refugees, the situation remains highly precarious – many people are dying in the bombings, many women are unable to give birth in acceptable conditions – but it has not reached a point at which we would agree to send aid without any controls.</p> <p>The second factor is the current lack of security guarantees. Some of our teams were kidnapped in January 2014, despite guarantees from the Islamic State. We have no reason to think that that could not happen again. For now, the only alternative would be to blindly send supplies and equipment, knowing that we cannot be sure that they will reach those in the greatest need and not be misappropriated.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – If we compare this crisis to Biafra and the outrage that led to MSF’s founding, the humanitarian sector seems more reserved and hesitant today. It’s no longer about action at any price. Are we talking about a “failure of humanitarianism” here?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN – Sending international teams to northern Syria today means taking the risk that colleagues could be executed or kidnapped for ransom. It is legitimate for humanitarian actors to refuse to take the risk of serving as a propaganda tool by providing sacrificial victims for YouTube videos or to fill the coffers of a political-military movement with contributions from the public or the governments who fund them.</p> <p>This is not the first time in the history of MSF or humanitarian aid when we have faced these kinds of limits. In the end, abstention thus becomes the lesser evil. MSF refused to work in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, concluding that we lacked the minimum level of autonomy to evaluate needs, distribute aid, and ensure that the aid would indeed go to victims, not executioners. We were expelled from Ethiopia in 1985 for the same reasons, for having protested the way in which aid was implemented: to create violence, rather than reduce it.</p> <p>I consider that a sign of vitality, not crisis nor failure. Being able to say ‘no’ means giving ourselves the negotiating space that allows us to ensure that we are not just passive tools in the hands of the authorities.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>STEPHANIE STERN AND MARC VERZEROLI – Given its current form and principles, doesn’t the humanitarian sector need greater political weight if it is to have an influence?</strong></p> <p>FABRICE WEISSMAN- We cannot say that the Syrian crisis has been neglected and that humanitarian organizations are responsible for that. A coalition of States declared war on the Islamic State and the budget for aid operations totals in the billions. This is the largest refugee crisis in the world today and there are aspects where the policy has shortcomings, specifically in terms of receiving refugees in Europe. These are issues to be explored and MSF should participate more fully in this discussion.</p> <p>However, I think that we are most useful politically is when we defend humanitarian assistance policies. During the time when aid was transiting only through Damascus and providing only marginal assistance in areas controlled by the opposition, there was a campaign directed at the States and the UN Security Council to encourage Turkey to open its borders wider, encourage donors to fund NGOs that were prepared to work on cross-border, and encourage the Security Council to adopt measures authorizing UN agencies to do so. At the same time, we were thus pressuring Damascus, which was fiercely hostile to opening cross-border corridors. The fear of seeing a “humanitarian highway” open up from neighboring countries helped UN representatives and the NGOs operating from Damascus win greater concessions from the government. We could do more today on the issue of access to enclaves. There might be a card to play now that Damascus is trying to present itself as a fortress against Islamism. Beyond that, we are not experts in conflict resolution.</p> <p>To come back to the Biafra comparison, there are clearly some crises that lead to greater mobilization than others. Biafra was the first televised crisis – the first famine to arrive in households at dinner time on television. France also had an interest in defending the Biafran secession in order to weaken Anglophone Nigeria. Today, the fact that the opposition to Bashar al-Assad’s regime largely takes the form of the Islamic State does not help to mobilize aid. The conditions are less advantageous, even if this is one of the most intense crises, with a conventional army that uses modern means of war in densely- populated areas on one side and a group with totalitarian goals on the other. In that regard, the level of response is not in keeping with the severity of the crisis.</p> <p>To return to the issue of reform of the humanitarian sector, we must adapt on a continuing basis. Perhaps there was a kind of euphoria in the 1980s-1990s, when the media and Western public opinion showered humanitarian actors with praise, but it wasn’t necessarily a golden age in operational terms. The situations were extremely demanding. We faced the genocide in Rwanda and the mass murders that followed in Zaire, with hundreds of humanitarian aid workers killed. Perhaps the sector has lost the elevated position it held in the eyes of Western public opinion in those years, but that does not mean that NGOs are in a state of decline today.</p> <p>As for the future – two years ago, who could have imagined that we would be facing a large-scale epidemic of hemorrhagic fever and the emergence of a competitor to Al-Qaeda with such local and worldwide influence? Who knows whether the situation will reverse itself tomorrow? Between 2001 and 2006, it was impossible to negotiate with the Taliban. Today, the ICRC and MSF are deploying nearly 3,000 humanitarian aid workers (including 240 expatriates) in Afghanistan, including in the areas where the insurgents have settled.</p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Fabrice Weissman, The State of the Humanitarian Sector, 30 January 2015, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/state-humanitarian-sector">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/state-humanitarian-sector</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3986" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3986&amp;2=reading_list" token="qlukCzxQLGCvMVJlKrGjs_UDW3Ljz0oTGjbCCb10AwA"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">The State of the Humanitarian Sector</span> Fri, 30 Jan 2015 01:00:00 +0000 Corinne-03 3986 at https://www.msf-crash.org Perspectives pour l’avenir de l’action humanitaire https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/blog/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/perspectives-pour-lavenir-de-laction-humanitaire <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-04-03T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">04/03/2013</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 04/03/2013 - 13:26</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/icrc" hreflang="en">ICRC</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-principles" hreflang="en">humanitarian principles</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Fabrice Weissman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3235" role="article" about="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4204.jpg?itok=sX0PzbdD" width="180" height="230" alt="Fabrice Weissman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Fabrice</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Weissman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Fabrice Weissman joined MSF in 1995. He spent several years as logistician and head of mission in Sub-Saharian Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, etc.), Kosovo, Sri Lanka and more recently Syria. He has published several articles and books on humanitarian action, including "In the Shadow of Just Wars. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co., 2004), "Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed. The MSF Experience" (ed., Oxford University Press, 2011) and "Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management" (ed., London, Hurst &amp; Co, 2016).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the ICRC (1863-2013) and in light of the recently launched issue of the Review on "The future of humanitarian action", the Harvard Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HPCR) and the International Review of the Red Cross are pleased to co-host a Live Web Seminar on the topic: "Perspectives on the Future of Humanitarian Action".</p> <p><strong>Panelists:</strong></p> <p><strong>Peter Maurer</strong>, ICRC President<br /> <strong>Fabrice Weissman</strong>, head of the Centre de réflexion sur l'action et les savoirs humanitaires (Fondation MSF)<br /> <strong>Jehangir Malik</strong>, Islamic Relief UK.<br /> <strong>Erika Feller</strong>, United Nations assistant High Commissioner for protection, UNHCR</p> <p><strong><a href="https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/event/2013/03-13-future-humanitarian-action-web-seminar.htm" target="_blank">LISTEN TO THE LIVE&nbsp; WEB SEMINAR</a></strong></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3708&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="2VP02CxTh7XcImRGOCeDya-brteVDGWU10vVp3AlpMY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3708&amp;2=reading_list" token="a6_UacqbfVSU9VawsJq-jgtNz7eEhH4Fh6LUw5jTOIg"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Fabrice Weissman, Perspectives on the future of humanitarian action, 3 April 2013, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/perspectives-future-humanitarian-action">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/perspectives-future-humanitarian-action</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3708" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Perspectives on the future of humanitarian action</span> Wed, 03 Apr 2013 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3708 at https://www.msf-crash.org Remote management in Somalia https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/remote-management-somalia <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-01-23T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">01/23/2013</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 01/23/2013 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/remote-management" hreflang="en">remote management</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-space" hreflang="en">humanitarian space</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-access" hreflang="en">humanitarian access</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Joe Belliveau</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3272" role="article" about="/en/joe-belliveau" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Joe</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Belliveau</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Former Project Coordinator and Head of Mission for Médecins Sans Frontières</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/joe-belliveau" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Discussions on the merits of remote control management of humanitarian projects have been particularly intense over the last few years. MSF is not an exception and we are pleased to share this contribution published in Humanitarian Exchange Magazine (January 2013, No. 56) by Joe Belliveau, the operational manager for Somalia in the Dutch section of our organisation. </strong></p> <p><strong>In it, he explains how 'remote control' is an effective tool in the implementation of MSF programs in Somalia. Mr Belliveau describes a successful strategy which is based on increased control of national staff by a coordinating team located several hundreds miles away.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>"REMOTE MANAGEMENT" IN SOMALIA<br /> By Joe Belliveau</strong></p> <p>Core to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)'s approach to assistance is sending international staff into foreign contexts to work with, and usually direct, locally recruited national staff. Outsiders bring experience, leadership and technical skills, and are in a better position to ‘witness' intolerable situations and speak out about them. International staff are also better able to resist local pressures for resource diversion, giving MSF greater confidence that donor money is being spent appropriately. For many within and outside MSF, this model is the only responsible option because the compromises assumed to be inherent in a remotely managed programme are unacceptable. MSF-Operational Center Amsterdam (MSFOCA)' s experience in Somalia challenges this paradigm, and suggests that the specific remote management model developed in this context works well and does not entail unacceptable compromises. While remote management should never be a first choice, in some contexts it can be a viable operational alternative to the deployment of international staff.</p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>On 28 January 2008 three MSF employees, one local and two international, were killed by a roadside bomb in the Somali port city of Kismayo. The deaths prompted the withdrawal of all MSF international staff across Somalia. As the risk of deploying expatriates, at least permanently, became too great, the mission set about adapting to this new reality.</p> <p>Remote management was not without precedent within MSF, but there was little documentation of lessons learnt, necessary preconditions and tools, protocols or strategies that could help guide the process in Somalia. The mission therefore started from scratch by identifying the following risks:</p> <p>- Reduced control over resources, especially cash and consumable items.<br /> - Declining medical quality.<br /> - Limited or no programme expansion or adaptation, including emergency response.<br /> - Increased risk to national staff, especially in senior positions.<br /> - Impartiality could be compromised by local clan dynamics reflected in the staff corps.<br /> - Limited or no témoignage (witnessing and speaking out on behalf of the affected population).</p> <p>A system was subsequently developed to mitigate these risks, based on new and adapted tools and procedures. Gradually mission culture shifted and national staff, supported and held accountable by a mixed Somali, Kenyan and international Country Management Team (CMT) based in Nairobi, took greater ownership of programme activities.</p> <p><strong>The system</strong></p> <p>The remote management system is based on several key concepts:</p> <p>Centralised decision-making. To maximise control over resource flows and reduce the risks to national staff in the field, most resource-related decisions that would normally be taken at field level are instead taken by the CMT.<br /> Micro-management and cross-checking. The Nairobi CMT is much more closely involved in project details than CMTs in most other MSF missions. Information coming from the field, especially resource-related information, is cross-checked through other sources within and across departments.<br /> Support and training. Field staff are brought out to Nairobi (and in some cases sent to Europe) for meetings and training more frequently and for a wider range of topics than in other MSF-OCA missions. In 2011 and 2012, staff came to Nairobi (or were sent further abroad) 116 times.</p> <p>Each support department - medical, logistics and finance/HR - has developed new ways of working to meet the particular demands of remote management, while continuing to use the same performance indicators as any other OCA mission. Medical staff based in Nairobi work very closely with their colleagues in the field. Daily contact, through email, phone and now video, is standard in order to track developments and coach, support and advise field staff. Weekly medical and surveillance reports are submitted, mortality reviews are conducted of all deaths, referrals are done in consultation with staff in Nairobi and exit interviews are conducted to help ensure that patients are receiving proper care. Patient registers are kept in duplicate, and individual files are monitored, either scanned and sent to Nairobi upon request or checked during visits. Prescriptions are checked for accuracy as well as to compare against drug consumption, and counter-signatures are required for external services like X-rays and lab work. For the two projects where international visits are possible, checklists are created to maximise the efficiency of visits, some of which last only a few hours...</p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.odihpn.org/humanitarian-exchange-magazine/issue-56/remote-management-in-somalia" target="_blank">READ THIS TEXT ON ODIHPN.ORG</a></strong></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3771&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="76f5CS4_vHMS1_8TDuunFNv82A4jHnoIQqJCskqY7pE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3771&amp;2=reading_list" token="X1UA55fU1XJ9omA-yagw59XYt6aBh_LpnjjetepwgQA"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Joe Belliveau, Remote management in Somalia, 23 January 2013, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/remote-management-somalia">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/remote-management-somalia</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3771" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Remote management in Somalia</span> Wed, 23 Jan 2013 01:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3771 at https://www.msf-crash.org