famine https://www.msf-crash.org/en en Famines: enjeux politiques et réponses opérationnelles https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/dossiers/famines-enjeux-politiques-et-reponses-operationnelles <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2017-06-12T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">06/12/2017</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Agnes</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 07/05/2017 - 18:06</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perverse-effects-and-limits-aid" hreflang="en">perverse effects and limits of aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/media" hreflang="en">media</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Rony Brauman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3221" role="article" about="/en/rony-brauman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4256.jpg?itok=nCrBsaSM" width="180" height="230" alt="Rony Brauman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Rony</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Brauman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Medical doctor, specialized in tropical medicine and epidemiology. Involved in humanitarian action since 1977, he has been on numerous missions, mainly in contexts of armed conflicts and IDP situations. President of Médecins sans Frontières from 1982 to1994, he also teaches at the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (HCRI) and is a regular contributor to Alternatives Economiques. He has published several books and articles, including&nbsp;"Guerre humanitaires ? Mensonges et Intox" (Textuel, 2018), "La Médecine Humanitaire" (PUF, 2010), "Penser dans l'urgence" (Editions du Seuil, 2006) and "Utopies Sanitaires" (Editions Le Pommier, 2000).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/rony-brauman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-center"><img alt="Deux femmes transportent des branches d'arbre, camp de Dagahaley, Kenya, 2009. Crédit: Dominic Nahr" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="35eecc0b-48b9-403c-b02a-266d95440343" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/MSF35999-famine-somalia_0.jpg" /><figcaption>Crédit: Dominic Nahr</figcaption></figure><p>The United Nations and NGOs that constitute the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) define famine as the collective presence of three criteria: a food shortage affecting 20% of households, a severe acute malnutrition rate of over 30% in children and an adult mortality rate above the alert threshold of 2/10,000/day. Given the serious implications of declaring a state of famine both from a political and an emergency aid perspective, there was an undeniable need to establish a common definition based on quantifiable data. </p> <p>However, care is needed when using such data to assess the severity of a crisis if that data is to have any meaning. Mortality rates, for example, rely on the availability of basic demographic data which is lacking in many poor countries. The extrapolation of data collected at specific times and in specific places is also far from reliable. So is predicting the spread of a famine by looking at person-to-person contamination from affected households as one would for an infectious disease, as was the case in the Horn of Africa in 2013 and 2017. The situations cited in the definition, a “household affected by a food shortage” for example, are also open to interpretation. All three of the criteria applied to define a famine are fractions (number of people affected/population) in which both the denominator and the numerator are marred with uncertainty. This is why famine alerts, United Nations alerts in particular, provoke doubt and criticism when they are not supported by images that testify to the reality on the ground.</p> <p>The articles and essays in this publication do not discuss the medico-nutritional approaches to famine; these are covered in the MSF guides produced by experts from the organisation. They look rather at the specific context in which famines arise and the responses mobilised to address them. MSF has been involved in a number of famine responses (Uganda 1980, Ethiopia 1984-1985, Somalia 1991-1993) and has contributed to many chronic and acute malnutrition operations (Niger, Sudan and Ethiopia in particular in the 2000s).</p> <p>As theses famines were systematically related to armed conflict, the political implications are particularly significant and consequently, feature as a common theme in most of the analyses. Food crises arising in other contexts do not, however, go unaddressed. Contributions include a number of historical and sociological analyses of the evolution of such crises, the production of data and different forms of operational response. The articles are mostly, although not entirely, written by members of MSF. Several, however, are the work of researchers in the field of social sciences that offer a wider analysis of the issues involved:</p> <p>Bonnecase, Vincent.<br /> « <strong><a href="http://www.cairn.info/revue-politique-africaine-2010-3-page-23.htm" target="_blank">Retour sur la famine au Sahel du début des années 1970 : la construction d'un savoir de crise</a></strong> », Politique africaine, vol. 119, no. 3, 2010, pp. 23-42.</p> <p>Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre.<br /> « <a href="http://www.cairn.info/revue-critique-internationale-2007-4-page-37.htm" target="_blank"><strong>Crise alimentaire et malnutrition infantile au Niger : le bilan de la « famine » de 2005</strong></a> », Critique internationale, vol. 37, no. 4, 2007, pp. 37-49.</p> <p>Some articles of this dossier are only available in French.</p> </div> <div class="height-computed field field--name-field-dossier-references field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Articles of this dossier</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3971" role="article" about="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning" typeof="schema:Article" class="node node--type-article node--view-mode-teaser"> <span property="schema:name" content="Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF105975-msf-staff-dstributing-nutritious-paste.jpg?itok=Gy5uBXR-" width="450" height="300" alt="Des enfants mangent de la pâte nutritive" title="Famine en Somalie : l’alerte à l’alerte" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Sven Torfinn</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3971&amp;2=reading_list" token="LInasBptAcZnCrhfqVQhRSmlOhc5QRVTkHcZlTglDzw"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Article</div></div><span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning" hreflang="en">Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2011-09-19T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">09/19/2011</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/rony-brauman" hreflang="en">Rony Brauman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In the context of emergency appeals in the Horn of Africa, Rony Brauman recalls the contemporary definition of a famine. While recognising the progress made in major crisis response mechanisms, he questions the alarmist attitude of the UN.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning" rel="tag" title="Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3642" role="article" about="/index.php/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/missing-malnourished-children-ethiopia" class="node node--type-blog-post node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF31867-MSF-staff-measure-the-weight-of-malnourished-child.jpg?h=fa87e7c0&amp;itok=KfqecR8t" width="450" height="300" alt="MSF staff measure the weight of a severely malnourished child" title="malnourished children in Ethiopia" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Robin Utrecht</div> </article> </div> <a href="/index.php/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/missing-malnourished-children-ethiopia" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3642&amp;2=reading_list" token="VU5ihYPJpuw7HfY6FqmRcDLNVN4NJPBVERVV83hmjZ0"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Blog post</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/index.php/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/missing-malnourished-children-ethiopia" hreflang="en">Missing : malnourished children in Ethiopia</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2009-07-29T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">07/29/2009</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/jean-herve-jezequel" hreflang="en">Jean-Hervé Jézéquel</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In 2008, Southern Ethiopia was the epicentre of a vast nutritional intervention: more than 100,000 malnourished children received assistance from a mix of actors including both international actors and local health facilities.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/index.php/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/missing-malnourished-children-ethiopia" rel="tag" title="Missing : malnourished children in Ethiopia" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Missing : malnourished children in Ethiopia</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3534" role="article" about="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia" class="node node--type-notebook node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF179582.jpg?itok=AIa8eXj9" width="450" height="300" alt="Réfugiés en Tanzanie" title="L’aide alimentaire et la politique des chiffres en Ethiopie 2002-2004" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Louise Annaud</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Cahier</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia" hreflang="en">Food aid and the politics of numbers in Ethiopia</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2008-05-15T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">05/15/2008</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/francois-enten" hreflang="en">François Enten</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This study sheds light on the mechanisms producing the official data used by humanitarian aid decision makers. It views Early Warning Systems (EWS) as tools that facilitate consensus between the decision-makers involved in the allocation of food aid, enabling them to reach institutional agreements. </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia" rel="tag" title="Food aid and the politics of numbers in Ethiopia" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Food aid and the politics of numbers in Ethiopia</span></a></li></ul> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3534&amp;2=reading_list" token="MC4DjS4ASImfGjIPvty4YJOzjPk-xah_P8Xk6NH3vV4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3352" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" class="node node--type-tribune node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF32368-treating-malnourished-children.jpg?itok=kiHMbsML" width="450" height="300" alt="Traitement d&#039;un enfant malnutri " title="Niger : cruel développement" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Kate Geraghty</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3352" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3352&amp;2=reading_list" token="gGEkiUzEzeYfvJtNwz0rvEat3UTxim_kaDednk2grw0"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Op-Ed</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" hreflang="fr">Niger : cruel développement</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2005-08-16T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">08/16/2005</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/jean-herve-jezequel" hreflang="fr">Jean-Hervé Jézéquel</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Doit-on s’étonner de la crise alimentaire qui affecte aujourd'hui le Niger ? La question semble aujourd'hui secondaire devant l'urgence de la situation. Et puis pourquoi s'étonner alors que le Sahel soit victime de famines depuis des siècles ?</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" rel="tag" title="Niger : cruel développement" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Niger : cruel développement</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3546" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/node/3546" class="node node--type-notebook node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF17631-distribution%20by%20MSF%20of%20non%20food%20items.jpg?itok=OfJWqgEV" width="450" height="300" alt="La distribution des produits non alimentaires dans l&#039;un des villages les plus pauvres près de Grozny, appelé le 6ème secteur Uchastok. " title="De l’Ethiopie à la Tchétchénie" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Misha Galustov</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3546" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Cahier</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/node/3546" hreflang="fr">De l’Ethiopie à la Tchétchénie</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2004-04-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">04/01/2004</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/francois-jean" hreflang="fr">François Jean</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Ce recueil contient des textes parus aussi bien dans des revues, magazines et journaux<em>,</em> que dans la presse interne de MSF. Il s’agit d’articles et de chapitres de livres écrits par François, ainsi que d’entretiens, de débats et d’actes de colloques auxquels il a participé.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/node/3546" rel="tag" title="De l’Ethiopie à la Tchétchénie" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about De l’Ethiopie à la Tchétchénie</span></a></li></ul> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3546&amp;2=reading_list" token="l8vHzoHFgtfVSLsS3U-vjfz_Cp9-tDSRXiyJn3LaF2U"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3810" role="article" about="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/food-emergency-ethiopia-what-drought-conceals" typeof="schema:Article" class="node node--type-article node--view-mode-teaser"> <span property="schema:name" content="The Food Emergency in Ethiopia: What the Drought Conceals" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF29733-ethiopia-nutritional-crisis.jpg?h=bdc22934&amp;itok=0xbOGwom" width="450" height="300" alt="Un enfant éthiopien " title="Crise alimentaire en Ethiopie : ce que cache la sécheresse" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Juan Carlos Tomasi</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/food-emergency-ethiopia-what-drought-conceals" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3810&amp;2=reading_list" token="OLDVqMXwdOvk9OH_sgluR_wuGdHFu9yFHGL5OhBLFdA"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Article</div></div><span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/food-emergency-ethiopia-what-drought-conceals" hreflang="en">The Food Emergency in Ethiopia: What the Drought Conceals</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2003-03-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">03/01/2003</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/fabrice-weissman" hreflang="en">Fabrice Weissman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Fabrice Weissman highlights the political factors at work behind the threat of famine - which, though very real, cannot be fully explained by natural causes - and casts a critical eye on the relief system, as well.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/food-emergency-ethiopia-what-drought-conceals" rel="tag" title="The Food Emergency in Ethiopia: What the Drought Conceals" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about The Food Emergency in Ethiopia: What the Drought Conceals</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="4341" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/qui-sadresse-laide-alimentaire-durgence-la-reponse" class="node node--type-notebook node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-09/MSF23585-a-qui-sadresse-laide-alimentaire-durgence.jpg?h=f7c5ea93&amp;itok=sYvFbEgb" width="450" height="300" alt="Une femme marche sur une route près de la ville de Humera, en Ethiopie." title="A qui s&#039;adresse l&#039;aide alimentaire d&#039;urgence? la réponse internationale à la &quot;famine&quot; éthiopienne de l&#039;an 2000" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Pep Bonet/Noor</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/4341" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Cahier</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/qui-sadresse-laide-alimentaire-durgence-la-reponse" hreflang="fr">A qui s&#039;adresse l&#039;aide alimentaire d&#039;urgence? La réponse internationale à la &quot;famine&quot; éthiopienne de l&#039;an 2000</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2001-06-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">06/01/2001</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/fabrice-weissman" hreflang="fr">Fabrice Weissman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Le pouvoir éthiopien aurait-il consciemment entravé la marche du système national de réponse aux crises pour produire une « urgence humanitaire » dans une zone périphérique et récupérer sous forme d’aide alimentaire le manque à gagner lié à la guerre et à la suspension des aides au développement ? Les bailleurs de fonds auraient-ils cautionné cette manipulation ? A vrai dire, le problème semble un peu plus complexe. La réalité se situe entre l’histoire sainte et la thèse de la machination scabreuse. C’est cette réalité compliquée que nous voudrions approcher, ce qui nous impose un détour préalable par l’économie alimentaire du pays et sa gestion politique.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/qui-sadresse-laide-alimentaire-durgence-la-reponse" rel="tag" title="A qui s&#039;adresse l&#039;aide alimentaire d&#039;urgence? La réponse internationale à la &quot;famine&quot; éthiopienne de l&#039;an 2000" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about A qui s&#039;adresse l&#039;aide alimentaire d&#039;urgence? La réponse internationale à la &quot;famine&quot; éthiopienne de l&#039;an 2000</span></a></li></ul> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4341&amp;2=reading_list" token="R5RSWycHFP9HC8Tc_VOxQqNaavG9gfMvHYMeM37A-l8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3549" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/du-bon-usage-de-la-famine" class="node node--type-book node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-06/MSF-cover-du-bon-usage-de-la-famine.jpg?h=9e659435&amp;itok=Prbs7XUI" width="450" height="300" alt="Couverture du livre Du bon usage de la famine" title="Du bon usage de la famine" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">MSF-Crash</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3549" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3549&amp;2=reading_list" token="2Tuw-xlxj3u0UWYa2Bx9QjQMDHy9WV_RSDiBetvD3LM"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Book</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/du-bon-usage-de-la-famine" hreflang="fr">Du bon usage de la famine</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="1986-10-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">10/01/1986</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/francois-jean" hreflang="fr">François Jean</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Dans ce texte rédigé d'un ton vigoureux, François Jean analyse les déterminants de la famine éthiopienne de 1984-1985, la rapprochant d'événements analogues survenus dans le monde communiste.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/du-bon-usage-de-la-famine" rel="tag" title="Du bon usage de la famine" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Du bon usage de la famine</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3942" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/ethiopie-laveuglement" typeof="schema:Article" class="node node--type-article node--view-mode-teaser"> <span property="schema:name" content="Ethiopie : l’aveuglement" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF140336-ethiopie.jpg?itok=T2LdbnGe" width="450" height="300" alt="Intervention en Ethiopie " title="Ethiopie : l’aveuglement" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Juan Carlos Tomasi</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3942" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3942&amp;2=reading_list" token="vdgboiZglvLqrCSOggWINSTW29lKK2gGK9yZ1WcRhcU"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Article</div></div><span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/ethiopie-laveuglement" hreflang="fr">Ethiopie : l’aveuglement</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="1986-10-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">10/01/1986</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/rony-brauman" hreflang="fr">Rony Brauman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Une interrogation critique sur l'aide internationale prise au piège d'un régime totalitaire.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/ethiopie-laveuglement" rel="tag" title="Ethiopie : l’aveuglement" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Ethiopie : l’aveuglement</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3927" role="article" about="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-humanitarian-crime" typeof="schema:Article" class="node node--type-article node--view-mode-teaser"> <span property="schema:name" content="Somalia: A Humanitarian Crime" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF100074-Somalie_1.jpg?itok=AgC5W9ug" width="450" height="300" alt="Distribution alimentaire au camp de Rajo à Mogadishu, en Somalia" title="Somalie, Le crime humanitaire" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Yann Libessart</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-humanitarian-crime" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3927&amp;2=reading_list" token="46uPUWtrRCyUxrioGKF0fB_o8mEEgQLuUmGLYTD_f1g"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Article</div></div><span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-humanitarian-crime" hreflang="en">Somalia: A Humanitarian Crime</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="1993-09-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">09/01/1993</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/rony-brauman" hreflang="en">Rony Brauman</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In 1993, Médecins Sans Frontières left Somalia and denounced the methods of UN troops who were violating the very humanitarian principles in whose name they intervened.</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-humanitarian-crime" rel="tag" title="Somalia: A Humanitarian Crime" hreflang="en">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Somalia: A Humanitarian Crime</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4163&amp;2=reading_list" token="zSkVTIttlnDbl5B7zSEJm70oUO6wyvgKyoD-jAs-ZSY"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Famine: political implications and operational responses</span> Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Agnes 4163 at https://www.msf-crash.org Somalie 1991-1993: guerre civile, alerte à la famine et intervention “militaro-humanitaire” de l’ONU https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/somalie-1991-1993-guerre-civile-alerte-la-famine-et-intervention <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above"><h1 class="title replaced-title" id="page-title">Somalia 1991-1993: Civil War, Famine Alert and a UN “Military-Humanitarian” Intervention</h1> </span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/63" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Kesaven-02</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 11/13/2013 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-11-13T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">11/13/2013</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/military-intervention" hreflang="en">military intervention</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/united-nations" hreflang="en">United Nations</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Laurence Binet</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3231" role="article" about="/en/laurence-binet" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Laurence</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Binet</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Former Director of Studies at MSF-Crash</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/laurence-binet" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The ‘<a href="http://speakingout.msf.org/en/somalia" target="_blank">Somalia 1991-1993: Civil War, Famine Alert and a UN "Military-Humanitarian" Intervention</a>‘ case study is describing the difficulties and dilemmas met by MSF during the first years that it was committed to helping the Somali people, after the civil war started in 1991.</p> <p>Should MSF employ armed guards? As the quasi-only source of information in the field, how far could MSF go in releasing information without favouring one party to the conflict or another? How to draw attention on the famine in Somalia, when all cameras were focused on the Gulf War? What position should MSF take about an armed intervention aiming to protect humanitarian aid convoys, with widespread support of the population, but raising MSF's fears that it would worsen the insecurity? How should MSF react to the excesses and abuses of this intervention?</p> <p><a href="http://speakingout.msf.org/en" target="_blank"><strong>Collection <em>MSF Speaking Out</em></strong></a></p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Laurence Binet, Somalia 1991-1993: Civil War, Famine Alert and a UN “Military-Humanitarian” Intervention, 13 November 2013, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-1991-1993-civil-war-famine-alert-and-un-military">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/somalia-1991-1993-civil-war-famine-alert-and-un-military</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=4033" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> Wed, 13 Nov 2013 01:00:00 +0000 Kesaven-02 4033 at https://www.msf-crash.org Famine et transferts forcés de populations en Ethiopie 1984-1986 https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/famine-et-transferts-forces-de-populations-en <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above"><h1 class="title replaced-title" id="page-title">Famine and Forced Relocations in Ethiopia 1984-1986</h1> </span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/64" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Corinne-03</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 11/13/2013 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2013-11-13T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">11/13/2013</time> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/forced-displacements" hreflang="en">forced displacements</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perverse-effects-and-limits-aid" hreflang="en">perverse effects and limits of aid</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Laurence Binet</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3231" role="article" about="/en/laurence-binet" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Laurence</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Binet</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Former Director of Studies at MSF-Crash</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/laurence-binet" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The "<a href="http://speakingout.msf.org/en/famine-and-forced-relocations-in-ethiopia" target="_blank">Famine and Forced Relocations in Ethiopia 1984-1986</a>" case study is describing the difficulties and dilemmas met by MSF during the famine that decimated the Ethiopian population in 1984-1985. This famine triggered an unprecedented humanitarian mobilisation and huge media attention. But the Ethiopian regime at the time also used the international aid as a bait to attract the populations and forcibly resettle them in appalling conditions.</p> <p>In this context: what should have been done when it appeared that aid was being used against the population for whom it was intended? Could MSF's denunciation have endangered international aid operations in Ethiopia? By taking such positions, could MSF put its own existence and, thus, its other activities at risk?<br /> <br /> <a href="http://speakingout.msf.org/en" target="_blank"><strong>Collection <em>MSF Speaking Out</em></strong></a></p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Laurence Binet, Famine and Forced Relocations in Ethiopia 1984-1986, 13 November 2013, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/famine-and-forced-relocations-ethiopia-1984-1986">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/famine-and-forced-relocations-ethiopia-1984-1986</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=4032" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> Wed, 13 Nov 2013 01:00:00 +0000 Corinne-03 4032 at https://www.msf-crash.org Somalia and the International Status Quo in Refugee Management: When is the right time to say the big F word? https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/camps-refugees-idps/somalia-and-international-status-quo-refugee-management-when-right-time <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-09-22T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">09/22/2011</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 09/22/2011 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/dadaab" hreflang="en">Dadaab</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/population-displacements" hreflang="en">population displacements</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-camp" hreflang="en">humanitarian camp</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Hakim Chkam</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3265" role="article" about="/en/hakim-chkam" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Hakim</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Chkam</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Head of Mission, Médecins Sans Frontières</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/hakim-chkam" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Reporting on her meeting in January 2010 with M. Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, the then UN special representative for Somalia - Ambassador Susan Rice noted in <a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/somalia-wikileaks/8302253/UN-SRSG-FOR-SOMALIA-PLEADS-FOR-FUNDING-TO-THWART-SOMALI-TERRORISM.html" target="_blank">a leaked diplomatic cable posted by Wikileaks</a>:<br /> "(Ould-Abdallah), noted the high number of foreign fighters who have joined the armed opposition, including American and British citizens, and gave a firsthand account of the prevalence of extremist views within the Somali community living in Minnesota. Stating that the threat is critical, Ould-Abdallah urged targeted operations on terrorists in Somalia, and said that the Security Council needs to define its overall objective in Somalia."</p> <p>A few months later, Minnesota Public Radio reported that a Somali store owner had his business vandalised with graffiti that said, "Go Home" one event in a long series of racial incidents targeting the Somali community in Minnesota.</p> <p>A year later, UNHCR's representative to Somalia, the UN agency mandated with the assistance and protection of refugees worldwide, declared <a href="http://www.unhcr.org/print/4e5d0c669.html" target="_blank">during a visit in Somalia</a>:<br /> "This famine should be a turning point and we are determined to make a real difference to Somalis where they are, so that they don't feel compelled to move to another country,"</p> <p>What can be drawn from these events that seem so loosely connected at first sight? Firstly, that there is a clear intent to contain Somalis inside Somalia's borders. Secondly, these events illustrate how humanitarian assistance has become entangled with migration and security agendas. Indeed, most humanitarian assistance in Somalia and in refugee camps is subordinated and in support of these two agendas.</p> <p>While many have pointed that it is bad governance and conflict that kill people in Somalia, not droughts, commentators usually have in mind governance at country level but often overlook the global governance picture based on a blend of migration, security and, to some extent, humanitarian concerns.</p> <p>In the absence of an accurate picture of Somalis' situation inside the country, Dadaab camps located in Kenya are the most visible illustration of that governance failure. Refugees in Dadaab face the double burden of poor living and security conditions in congested camps and indefinite exile. This situation underscores the failure of the current international status quo in the management of refugees across the globe based on encampment, detention and restricted resettlement opportunities.</p> <p>Like a tree, successive waves of refugees' influx in Dadaab constitute rings that give a fair account of Somalia's last 20 years of history. The Dadaab refugee population had been relatively stable, for a decade, starting from the mid-1990s. The camps' population started to dramatically increase in 2007. It has almost tripled since December 2006 which marked the beginning of yet another chapter of violence in Somalia when major international and regional players embarked on a policy of regime change to oust the Islamic Courts Union from south-central Somalia in the name of counter-terrorism and nation-building. With a drought exacerbating an already desperate situation, the current significant arrival of refugees marks another chapter of a crisis that started 20 years ago...</p> <p>Can UNHCR's representative comments be taken as a sign that the "international community" has abdicated on its responsibility to provide assistance and protection to refugees? All signs point towards this conclusion.</p> <p>UNHCR states that camps should be considered as a last and temporary option, and, if a camp is to be established, high population density and very large settlements should be avoided. Three durable solutions to a refugee crisis are usually put forward: voluntary repatriation, local integration, and third country resettlement. Repatriation is not conceivable, prospects for formal integration in Kenya are limited and for many refugees in Dadaab, resettlement to a third country appears to be the only viable option. This option is based on the principle of burden-sharing and international solidarity in refugee situations. Paragraph 4 of the Preamble of the 1951 Refugee Convention states that:<br /> "the grant of asylum may place unduly heavy burdens on certain countries, and that a satisfactory solution of a problem of which the United Nations has recognized the international scope and nature cannot therefore be achieved without international cooperation."</p> <p>With the end of the Cold War, a progressive shift occurred in the management of refugee situations, from a regime of international protection and assistance as enshrined in the Refugee Convention to a regime of neglect. The Global War on Terror and anti-immigrant sentiments have accelerated this shift. The refugee as a figure and a legal category is now subsumed into the broader class of "migrant" and recast as suspect. As the line between "migrant" and "refugee" blurs, the distinction between migration control and refugee assistance and protection has become tenuous.</p> <p>Dadaab camps should not be seen in isolation from other locations where Somali refugees - and refugees and asylum seekers from other countries - are forced to stay and live a secluded existence in permanent transit. Refugee camps, detention centres and slums to name a few constitute a web of connected "extra-territorial" zones across Africa, Europe and the Middle East where Somali refugees - and others - are often deprived from satisfactory international protection and assistance. Also, movements from one location to another can lead to death, physical abuses, extortion and detention.</p> <p>Restrictive asylum policies are increasingly shaped by a security discourse and a growing anti-migrant sentiment in Europe and North America. Today, Somalis are considered to be the most "systematically undesired, stigmatised and discriminated against refugees in the world" <a href="http://www.unhcr.org/4cb720ac9.html" target="_blank">in UNHCR words</a>. In Western countries, Somalis and citizens of Somali origin are increasingly perceived as a threat and as a troublesome population. From the status of victims of high emotional symbolic value worth an international military intervention in the 90s to "ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia" as per UN Security Council resolution 794 (1992); under the pretext of security concerns, Somalis have come to be identified as threats. This demonization process hinges at times towards a dehumanisation of Somalis. It should not come as a surprise that boats ransomed by Somali pirates off the coast of Somalia attract more media attention than the hundreds of deaths every year of Somalis and other refugees who embarked for the perilous journey across the Gulf of Aden or the Mediterranean sea.</p> <p>With Dadaab population expected to reach half-a-million by the end of the year, the refugees' situation is expected to keep deteriorating. The current status quo cannot hold indefinitely. When is the right time to declare the big F word, F not for famine but for failure, the failure of States to uphold their obligations to assist and protect refugees? It also begs another question for aid actors. At which moment does collaboration in the management and control of an "undesirable" population becomes complicity? When humanitarian assistance is forced to take on a primary role in the management of an inextricable situation, it is high time to remind that this situation is not outside the political realm and that States and other parties must take their responsibilities.</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3768&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="-hT8mb8SnQwjxMw0JkPl6u48ikxbggl8eEDL6KLeOZ4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3768&amp;2=reading_list" token="RXvVURN4hkjgVzzlavMgNSc2Ej9XAl9EqcLneJmkB_E"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Hakim Chkam, Somalia and the International Status Quo in Refugee Management: When is the right time to say the big F word?, 22 September 2011, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/camps-refugees-idps/somalia-and-international-status-quo-refugee-management-when-right-time">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/camps-refugees-idps/somalia-and-international-status-quo-refugee-management-when-right-time</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3768" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Somalia and the International Status Quo in Refugee Management: When is the right time to say the big F word?</span> Thu, 22 Sep 2011 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3768 at https://www.msf-crash.org Famine en Somalie : l’alerte à l’alerte https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/famine-en-somalie-lalerte-lalerte <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Publication date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-09-19T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">09/19/2011</time> </div> </div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/64" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Corinne-03</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2017-04-16T17:40:45+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 04/16/2017 - 19:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/child-mortality" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">child mortality</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/malnutrition" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">malnutrition</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/drought" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">drought</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Rony Brauman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3221" role="article" about="/en/rony-brauman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4256.jpg?itok=nCrBsaSM" width="180" height="230" alt="Rony Brauman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Rony</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Brauman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Medical doctor, specialized in tropical medicine and epidemiology. Involved in humanitarian action since 1977, he has been on numerous missions, mainly in contexts of armed conflicts and IDP situations. President of Médecins sans Frontières from 1982 to1994, he also teaches at the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (HCRI) and is a regular contributor to Alternatives Economiques. He has published several books and articles, including&nbsp;"Guerre humanitaires ? Mensonges et Intox" (Textuel, 2018), "La Médecine Humanitaire" (PUF, 2010), "Penser dans l'urgence" (Editions du Seuil, 2006) and "Utopies Sanitaires" (Editions Le Pommier, 2000).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/rony-brauman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Twenty years of war in central and southern Somalia have destroyed the country, and the drought now raging in the region only makes the immense difficulties of its people worse. Statements announcing an unprecedented famine in East Africa are not, however, very convincing. A series of nutrition surveys conducted under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in July gives us a clearer picture by distinguishing three different situations. First, there are pockets of famine in south-central Somalia characterized by high infant mortality (there is talk of some 30,000 deaths in the preceding three months). We should add that these “pockets” weren’t pinpointed geographically, no less visited, but rather deduced from the shape of the curves for mortality and morbidity (the number of people ill in a given population). Elsewhere in the south, there is “only” food insecurity, while the northern part of the country is enjoying normal harvests and healthy livestock, free from any food crisis at all. There is thus a heterogeneous situation, only partly described by the term “famine.”</p> <p>But how, in fact, is famine defined? What constitutes a famine to the UN and the NGOs is the combined presence of the following three elements: a food shortage affecting 20% of households, over 30% of children with severe acute malnutrition, and an adult mortality rate exceeding the alert threshold of 2 deaths/10,000/day. Expressing the horror of a famine in terms of numerical indicators and quantitative thresholds may seem inhumane, or even shocking. Yet because declaring a humanitarian state of emergency has serious ramifications both politically and in terms of emergency aid, agreement on an at least somewhat objective definition is essential. In this as in other international aid sectors, meetings between practitioners and researchers and the lessons learned from experience have led to better practices. But this ability to objectify a crisis by quantifying it imposes its own constraints, without which the numbers themselves lose all meaning. For example, mortality calculations suppose knowledge of basic demographic data that are generally lacking in many poor countries. Likewise, extrapolating data collected in certain times and places is a risky enterprise. Equally questionable is the practice of expecting – as we do in the Horn of Africa – that a famine will spread out progressively from localized foci, like an infectious disease. More generally, and despite marked improvements in technology and know-how over the past two decades, we are still left speechless by how casually alarmist numbers are put forward, year after year, by the UN, and then immediately relayed by the media and NGOs – whether about the effects of the tsunami in Southeast Asia, cholera in Haiti, the swine flu worldwide, or the floods in Pakistan, to name just the most salient recent announcements. The combination of drought and large, armed conflict-driven population displacements can lead to famine, especially in displaced populations, which are always the most vulnerable. It was under these very conditions that the 1991-1992 famine in Somalia occurred. But what might happen is not necessarily what <em>does </em>happen, given the many other social, political, and economic factors that come into play in a subsistence crisis.</p> <p>Millions and millions of people in East Africa live in extreme poverty without being subjected to the war and oppression experienced by those living in southern Somalia and Ethiopia's Ogaden region. And the presumed famine involves only some parts of the conflict-ridden regions. At the time of this writing, there are repeated calls for the urgent rescue of millions of people in danger of starving to death. While the televised reports bring the very real drama of displaced families home to us, they do not show the emaciated adults that are the hallmark of famines. And while an ounce of prevention is no doubt worth a pound of cure, you still need to know what you’re trying to prevent in order to decide how best to do it. Declaring a humanitarian state of emergency in which ongoing famine, the threat of epidemics, potential famine, material insecurity and malnutrition are indiscriminately mixed is no help at all.</p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Rony Brauman, Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!, 19 September 2011, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/famine-somalia-warning-against-warning</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3971" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3971&amp;2=reading_list" token="LInasBptAcZnCrhfqVQhRSmlOhc5QRVTkHcZlTglDzw"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Famine in Somalia : warning against the warning!</span> Mon, 19 Sep 2011 00:00:00 +0000 Corinne-03 3971 at https://www.msf-crash.org Mieux vaut mourir de faim dans un pays en guerre https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/blog/guerre-et-humanitaire/mieux-vaut-mourir-de-faim-dans-un-pays-en-guerre <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-09-12T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">09/12/2011</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 09/12/2011 - 19:42</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/drought" hreflang="en">drought</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-aid" hreflang="en">food aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/child-mortality" hreflang="en">child mortality</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Jean-Hervé Bradol</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3222" role="article" about="/en/jean-herve-bradol" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4265.jpg?itok=AmXSIDIp" width="180" height="230" alt="Jean-Hervé Bradol" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Jean-Hervé</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Bradol</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Medical doctor, specialized in tropical medicine, emergency medicine and epidemiology. In 1989 he went on mission with Médecins sans Frontières for the first time, and undertook long-term missions in Uganda, Somalia and Thailand. He returned to the Paris headquarters in 1994 as a programs director. Between 1996 and 1998, he served as the director of communications, and later as director of operations until May 2000 when he was elected president of the French section of Médecins sans Frontières. He was re-elected in May 2003 and in May 2006. From 2000 to 2008, he was a member of the International Council of MSF and a member of the Board of MSF USA. He is the co-editor of "Medical innovations in humanitarian situations" (MSF, 2009) and Humanitarian Aid, Genocide and Mass Killings: Médecins Sans Frontiéres, The Rwandan Experience, 1982–97 (Manchester University Press, 2017).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/jean-herve-bradol" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>For the past several months, news about food shortages and famines affecting large segments of the East African population have been fueling donation appeals from major public and private aid organizations. Low rainfall and - in Somalia's case - recent stirrings in the 20-year-old civil war explain how a bad situation has suddenly become catastrophic. A precipitous drop in many families' purchasing power in recent years, owing in large part to skyrocketing food costs, has created a situation in which any short-term disequilibrium - due to climate or security conditions, for example - is apt to turn into a disaster that can last a year or even more. In this regard, what is happening in central and southern Somalia is an extreme example of a wider phenomenon. Throughout the region, millions of people lack the purchasing power to buy what they need, though the markets are well-stocked. The markets in Somalia are functioning, too, despite the war, and people are dying of hunger not far from warehouses filled with food they can't afford.</p> <p>While the media broadcast, ad nauseum, images and accounts of the suffering endured by the people of central and southern Somalia and epidemiological surveys confirm the severity of the situation, bringing help to Somali children is no simple matter. The armed opposition fears that a food distribution operation within its territory by foreign organizations could be used to weaken it. After all, the safety of food aid convoys was the main rationale behind international military intervention in 1992. Today, international troops engaged in military operations against the armed opposition are already involved in food distribution, and are asking for several thousand more men. Food aid lies at the heart of political and military issues, and a massive emergency deployment would mean a major, rapid shift in power relationships. In reality, the political and military conditions necessary to the success of operations that donors are being asked to fund do not currently exist.</p> <p>How childhood malnutrition is being managed in neighboring countries - where unlike Somalia, relief operations aren't hindered by armed conflict - also raises some awkward questions. Some of these countries have populations ten times larger than Somalia. Take Ethiopia, for example. According to UNICEF, in the 2000s, Ethiopia and Somalia had the same percentages of moderately and severely underweight children - meaning that in absolute terms, there are ten times as many undernourished children in Ethiopia.</p> <p>Who is it that is dying of hunger? Young children. What could prevent their deaths, in the short term? Powdered milk-, sugar- and oil-based food supplements. Why isn't this being given to undernourished children before they reach a critical state? For two reasons. The first is a professional standard that pits prevention of undernutrition (promoting breastfeeding and certain dietary habits, and adding micronutrients to basic foodstuffs) against treatment (distributing dietary supplements to children for nutritional rehabilitation). The second is simply economic feasibility; the dietary supplements needed for nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished children now cost two to three euros a kilo. At that price, neither families nor public health institutions have the budget to treat the millions of infants each year found to have height or weight growth delays at medical visits. That's why infants diagnosed with undernutrition usually return home untreated. Indeed, international and national recommendations require that a child be at the most advanced stage - severe marasmus or Kwashiorkor - before he is given an appropriate dietary supplement.</p> <p>There are a few exceptions to this, however. The distribution of free food is considered justified in war and natural disaster situations. In these cases, infants may be treated before they reach the most severe stage of undernutrition. Outside of these humanitarian emergencies, children usually do not get food aid. So unlike Somali children, Ethiopian children - unless they've reached end-stage malnutrition - don't get any help, despite the absence of any conflict preventing aid organizations from reaching them.</p> <p>We should point out that two hundred years ago, people everywhere around the globe faced the same scourge. Since then, things have gotten better in the four out of every five countries that have managed to make food that specifically meets the needs of fast-growing young children available to families. In the thirty or so countries where deadly pockets of childhood undernutrition continue to be a fact of life, however, the situation can only persist. Aside from treating a few cases of severe marasmus, neither public health institutions nor families can afford nutritional rehabilitation for infants. After thirty years of trying, it's clear that neither preventive measures nor economic development efforts in these countries can by themselves compensate for the market's lack of affordable, infant-appropriate dietary supplements.</p> <p>Since the 1970s, not a single transnational public health effort has been able to thrive under initial market conditions - whether it be immunization, contraception, the use of national essential drugs lists or drugs for AIDS. The creation of transnational public health-specific economic sectors has been possible only through differential pricing based on the income level of the countries in question. To do this, private economic operators reluctantly agreed to make a few exceptions to a single world price, while the States agreed to fund the now less-expensive effort. Without a comparable development in the area of infant feeding, we are condemned to watch children disappear year after year from the deadly combination of undernutrition and infection. The current exacerbation in climate- and economy-related malnutrition should finally convince us that it's time to take action to ensure that dietary supplements are more available, and administered sooner, to deal with the most deadly form of malnutrition - infant undernutrition. Should a Tobin tax ever be established, funding this type of public health project would be an excellent use of the money.</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3672&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="O9uhM8w36pygIlqgxY5xHpYrpgzS_mf_2cTsiZCRuNo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3672&amp;2=reading_list" token="DehHxUtxJR7v2PLSh9Wis3mrklfnTc1_smswQ9R96Hs"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Jean-Hervé Bradol, If you have to starve to death, better to do it in a war-torn country, 12 September 2011, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/if-you-have-starve-death-better-do-it-war-torn-country">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/war-and-humanitarianism/if-you-have-starve-death-better-do-it-war-torn-country</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3672" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">If you have to starve to death, better to do it in a war-torn country</span> Mon, 12 Sep 2011 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3672 at https://www.msf-crash.org Quand les Nations unies crient famine https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/blog/catastrophes-naturelles/quand-les-nations-unies-crient-famine <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-08-05T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">08/05/2011</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 08/16/2011 - 12:15</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/media" hreflang="en">media</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/drought" hreflang="en">drought</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-insecurity" hreflang="en">food insecurity</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Rony Brauman</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3221" role="article" about="/en/rony-brauman" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-04/DSCF4256.jpg?itok=nCrBsaSM" width="180" height="230" alt="Rony Brauman" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Rony</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Brauman</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Medical doctor, specialized in tropical medicine and epidemiology. Involved in humanitarian action since 1977, he has been on numerous missions, mainly in contexts of armed conflicts and IDP situations. President of Médecins sans Frontières from 1982 to1994, he also teaches at the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (HCRI) and is a regular contributor to Alternatives Economiques. He has published several books and articles, including&nbsp;"Guerre humanitaires ? Mensonges et Intox" (Textuel, 2018), "La Médecine Humanitaire" (PUF, 2010), "Penser dans l'urgence" (Editions du Seuil, 2006) and "Utopies Sanitaires" (Editions Le Pommier, 2000).</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/rony-brauman" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The United Nations announces a famine and that 12.4 million people are threatened by drought in the Horn of Africa. Radio and television repeatedly broadcast an appeal for donations to UNICEF, brandishing disturbing figures. Oxfam accuses the French government of being tight-fisted.&nbsp; Rony Brauman questions the use of such language of catastrophe and of such numbers being quoted in the media like rabbits being pulled out of a hat.</p> <p><strong>Olivier Falhun: What is your analysis of what is happening today in the Horn of Africa?</strong></p> <p><strong>Rony Brauman</strong> : Despite the lack of images and of verified and substantiated information, the mere fact that every day between 1,000 and 3,000 people cross the Kenyan or Ethiopian border demonstrates the seriousness of the situation: people do not take the decision to flee their homes lightly. In other words, there is no doubt that the situation in Somalia is serious. But in saying this, I remain rather vague, because I cannot tell you what is really going on. Are the people who leave fleeing a war zone or persecution? Or is it that there is no more food available? Both reasons combined, probably. Despite the numerous analyses, accounts full of figures, and UN and NGO reports, we still don't know.</p> <p><strong>Given the number of countries affected, it is likely that this situation is more related to lack of food than to violence ...</strong></p> <p>A survey published by Fews Net reveals that southern Somalia is the most affected, the north is enjoying relative abundance and the centre is closer to an imbalance. But agriculturally speaking, the south is the most modern region. It is a valley that lies between two rivers, the Juba and Shabelle, and is traditionally an exporter of food. If subsistence if threatened here, it is likely that elements linked to political instability are also a factor. There must be a relationship between the effects of the drought and political instability, if only because in this region of southern Somalia the weather conditions are normally offset by irrigation systems, systems which have not worked this time. This situation is therefore the consequence of a lack of rain coupled with political failure, even if it is difficult at this point for us to know exactly what happened. The situation - drought and conflict - is comparable in Ogaden [in Ethiopia], where the movements of NGOs are subject to severe restrictions and where it seems impossible to make a diagnosis of the food situation.</p> <p><strong>Should we then question the magnitude and extent of the crisis affecting the whole of the Horn of Africa?</strong></p> <p>This figure of 12.5 million people spread across half a dozen countries has no significance other than as an alarm signal from the UN to alert us to an extreme crisis. But I think this is a bad strategy. First, by using six-figure numbers and counting victims by the million, you end up demonstrating your insignificance, and the weight of the horror crushes the very people you are trying to mobilise. Moreover, if journalists were not stricken with amnesia, those who advance such figures would be exposing themselves to ridicule. Two or three years ago, Oxfam spoke of 30 million people threatened by starvation in the Horn of Africa. In Burma, there were rumours of a million and half people in danger of imminent death. Not to mention the two billion people at risk of flu! Year after year, millions of "virtual" deaths appear on the front pages and are quickly succeeded by others. Then they are almost immediately forgotten, which emphasises the insignificance of these announcements. We should move beyond the numbers and focus on where the food crisis seems to be the most critical: parts of southern Somalia, where there are pockets of famine. Note also that the uncertainties are due to the lack of access to affected regions, which brings us back to the responsibilities of the Somali political leaders.</p> <p><strong>How do you reply to those who worry about a timebomb, who fear that current food insecurity might lead to a future large-scale famine?</strong></p> <p>I would tell them that they do not know, that famines are difficult to predict, and that to talk about a potential famine is an abuse of language. Some are now talking about a famine spreading across the whole of East Africa, like an epidemic. It does not happen like that. It is never entire regions that are affected, only localised areas. Moreover, Kenya, Uganda, and South Sudan differ in many ways. Grouping them together in a "Horn of Africa" makes no sense in this context. Finally, a famine is immediately visible. We can see it straightaway, when a significant number of adults are starved to their bones, and this is not the case in the areas we have been able to access. My aim is not to get caught up in an irrelevant semantic debate, but we must remember that the words employed to describe a situation will determine the type of response. To use medical terminology, it's about accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.</p> <p><strong>What do you think in this case of Oxfam's pronouncements against the French government, who they accuse of selfishness in a crisis of this magnitude?</strong></p> <p>From a marketing point of view, it was well done, as the French contribution has jumped from 10 to 30 million euros. But, contrary to what the current campaigns would like us to think, it is not enough to accumulate millions of dollars to help the Somali people. So this is only a short-term victory: once they have collected the money, it will be difficult both to provide a precise account of where the money was spent and to guarantee the provision of relief.</p> <p><strong>Aren't the NGOs also guilty of spreading this idea that money miraculously results in relief, although this probably does not reflect reality?</strong></p> <p>I think the idea is in tune with the current belief in the omnipotence of money and technology - a belief that NGOs also repeat and recycle in their own field. The war in Libya is another example. I use the term "belief" because I relate this approach to a kind of religious behaviour, a kind that sits very happily with more material interests. Remember the controversy over donations after the 2004 tsunami. The fact that MSF dared challenge the urgency of the situation and refuse donations resulted in unusually violent reactions that can only be explained by some kind of believer's passion, combined of course with the desire to fill bank accounts. What is happening in Somalia reminds us that you can't solve famine by air-dropping food to an isolated and distressed population. Yet this "model of providence" is the one that is being disseminated: you just need to raise funds, convert them into food, and distribute it to all those who need it. Unfortunately, things are not as simple ...</p> <p>Given the increasing media pressure and the extremely alarmist reports, I would not be surprised if military escorts will soon be suggested for aid convoys. It would be unwise, but it wouldn't be the first time something unwise was done. Unless we want to repeat the huge mistakes made by the US-led Operation Restore Hope in 1992, it is obvious that we must organise assistance with the local authorities and local intermediaries, whom we should neither romanticise nor demonise. Without them, or against them, nothing will be possible. This is one of the few certainties of the situation. It also means that this is their responsibility too, not just foreign players.</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3671&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="QBzYql71acSXxclo8YVIfBx0ZsaDnGDf01choYSMAow"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3671&amp;2=reading_list" token="SOtweoYrpD_X9HZ1cN18m0RHe8173CvaeftvN0nOeU0"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Rony Brauman, When the United Nations cry wolf, 5 August 2011, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/natural-disasters/when-united-nations-cry-wolf">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/blog/natural-disasters/when-united-nations-cry-wolf</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3671" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">When the United Nations cry wolf</span> Fri, 05 Aug 2011 00:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3671 at https://www.msf-crash.org L’aide alimentaire et la politique des chiffres en Ethiopie 2002-2004 https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2008-05-15T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">05/15/2008</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/15" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">denisa</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 05/15/2008 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/early-warning-systems" hreflang="en">early warning systems</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-aid" hreflang="en">food aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/nutrition-crisis" hreflang="en">nutrition crisis</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/malnutrition" hreflang="en">malnutrition</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perverse-effects-and-limits-aid" hreflang="en">perverse effects and limits of aid</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/francois-enten" hreflang="en">François Enten</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This study sheds light on the mechanisms producing the official data used by humanitarian aid decision makers. It views Early Warning Systems (EWS) as tools that facilitate consensus between the decision-makers involved in the allocation of food aid, enabling them to reach institutional agreements. This argument is strengthened by a socio-theoretical analysis and by ethnographic observation of experts' practice in Ethiopia (2002-2004), whose results of food aid evaluations appear as a combination of empirical and political factors.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-chapters field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Chapters</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/introduction" hreflang="en">Introduction</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/cartography" hreflang="en">Cartography</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/part-1-early" hreflang="en">PART 1 Early warning systems (EWS)</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/part-2-ethiopian" hreflang="en">PART 2 The Ethiopian EWS at ground level: expert practice, statistical production and the influence of politics</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/conclusion" hreflang="en">Conclusion</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/appendix-main" hreflang="en">APPENDIX. THE MAIN EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/abbreviations" hreflang="en">Abbreviations</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/laide-alimentaire-et-la-politique-des-chiffres-en-ethiopie-2002-2004/bibliography" hreflang="en">Bibliography</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> François Enten, Food aid and the politics of numbers in Ethiopia, 15 May 2008, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/humanitarian-actors-and-practice/food-aid-and-politics-numbers-ethiopia</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3534" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Food aid and the politics of numbers in Ethiopia</span> Thu, 15 May 2008 00:00:00 +0000 denisa 3534 at https://www.msf-crash.org Niger 2005, Une catastrophe si naturelle https://www.msf-crash.org/fr/publications/catastrophes-naturelles/niger-2005-une-catastrophe-si-naturelle <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2007-10-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">10/01/2007</time> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/65" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Jason-04</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 10/01/2007 - 02:00</span> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Xavier Crombé, Jean-Hervé Jézéquel, Niger: A not-so Natural Disaster, 1 October 2007, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/natural-disasters/niger-not-so-natural-disaster">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/natural-disasters/niger-not-so-natural-disaster</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/malnutrition" hreflang="en">malnutrition</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-aid" hreflang="en">food aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/nutrition-crisis" hreflang="en">nutrition crisis</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/child-mortality" hreflang="en">child mortality</a></div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3531" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Xavier Crombé &amp; Jean-Hervé Jézéquel</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3229" role="article" about="/en/xavier-crombe" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Xavier</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Crombé</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Xavier Crombé was Director of Studies at MSF-Crash&nbsp;from 2005 to 2008. He is currently working at the Research Unit on Humanitarian Stakes and Practices (UREPH) of MSF in Switzerland to publish a collective essay dealing with issues related to violence in healthcare facilities. He is also teaching humanitarian and migration issues at Sciences Po Paris.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/xavier-crombe" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3223" role="article" about="/en/jean-herve-jezequel" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Jean-Hervé</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Jézéquel</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Deputy Project Director for West Africa at International Crisis Group.</p> <p>Jean-Hervé Jézéquel first worked as a Consultant for Crisis Group in Guinea in 2003, before joining as the Senior Analyst for the Sahel region in March 2013. He has also worked as a Field Coordinator in Liberia, a West Africa Researcher and a Research Director, for Médecins sans Frontières.</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/jean-herve-jezequel" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Twenty years after the charity concerts for the Sahel Nigerien politicians, institutional donors, aid agencies and humanitarian organisations clashed on the nature and substance of the crisis affecting Niger in 2005. Identifying the causes of, and adequate responses to, the situation also gave rise to profound disagreements. Having set up their most ambitious emergency nutrition programme to date, Médecins Sans Frontières found itself at the forefront of these controversies.</p> <p>This book, an MSF initiative, is a collection of contributions from researchers, consultants and humanitarian actors. Each contributor gives a different perspective of the Nigerien crisis and discusses what they consider to be the key issues involved. In particular, the authors examine and question the conflict that arose during the summer of 2005 between the 'development' and 'emergency' camps. They also discuss the nature and durability of the changes that occurred in the wake of the crisis, and call for further reflexion on the preconceptions and implicit choices that condition relations of assistance and aid in Africa. One consensus however stands out: the death of tens of thousands of children every year, like the pauperisation and marginalisation of an ever increasing number of Nigeriens, are not the result of natural disasters: still less a fatality.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><br /> <a class="button" href="https://www.amazon.fr/Not-so-Natural-Disaster-Niger-05/dp/1850659540/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;s=english-books&amp;qid=1245252979&amp;sr=8-1" target="_blank">Buy on Amazon.fr</a></p> </div> <div class="height-computed field field--name-field-related-content field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Related publications</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3352" role="article" lang="fr" about="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" class="node node--type-tribune node--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-teaser-image"> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-teaser"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/teaser/public/2017-05/MSF32368-treating-malnourished-children.jpg?itok=kiHMbsML" width="450" height="300" alt="Traitement d&#039;un enfant malnutri " title="Niger : cruel développement" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-teaser" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-copyright field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Kate Geraghty</div> </article> </div> <a href="/en/node/3352" class="main-link"></a> </div> <div class="group-content"> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3352&amp;2=reading_list" token="gGEkiUzEzeYfvJtNwz0rvEat3UTxim_kaDednk2grw0"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="bundle-container"><div class="field--name-field-bundle">Op-Ed</div></div><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"><h3><a href="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" hreflang="fr">Niger : cruel développement</a></h3> </span> <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2005-08-16T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">08/16/2005</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/fr/jean-herve-jezequel" hreflang="fr">Jean-Hervé Jézéquel</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-summary field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Doit-on s’étonner de la crise alimentaire qui affecte aujourd'hui le Niger ? La question semble aujourd'hui secondaire devant l'urgence de la situation. Et puis pourquoi s'étonner alors que le Sahel soit victime de famines depuis des siècles ?</p> </div> <div class="node__links"> <ul class="links inline"><li class="node-readmore"><a href="/fr/publications/acteurs-et-pratiques-humanitaires/niger-cruel-developpement" rel="tag" title="Niger : cruel développement" hreflang="fr">Read more<span class="visually-hidden"> about Niger : cruel développement</span></a></li></ul> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3531&amp;2=reading_list" token="slhYtSn5D06xFLnNd0PTdRx2NQKAf5JcvUxZ2a1RRvU"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Niger: A not-so Natural Disaster</span> Mon, 01 Oct 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Jason-04 3531 at https://www.msf-crash.org From Ethiopia to Chechnya https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/ethiopia-chechnya <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2004-04-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">04/01/2004</time> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/12" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">nicolas.l</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 04/01/2004 - 02:00</span> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> François Jean, From Ethiopia to Chechnya, 1 April 2004, URL : <a href="https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/ethiopia-chechnya">https://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/ethiopia-chechnya</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/chechnya" hreflang="en">Chechnya</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/famine" hreflang="en">famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/malnutrition" hreflang="en">malnutrition</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perverse-effects-and-limits-aid" hreflang="en">perverse effects and limits of aid</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/security-humanitarian-personnel" hreflang="en">security of humanitarian personnel</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/testimony" hreflang="en">testimony</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/humanitarian-principles" hreflang="en">humanitarian principles</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/south-ossetia" hreflang="en">South Ossetia</a></div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=4073" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">François Jean</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3252" role="article" about="/en/francois-jean" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">François</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Jean</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Researcher at MSF-Crash, François Jean died on December 25th 1999. He wrote numerous books and articles, some published in Revue Esprit. He worked particularly on Afghanistan, Caucasus, North Korea and analyzed the evolution of humanitarianism without compromise.</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/francois-jean" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>François Jean left a mark on Médecins Sans Frontières. He was probably the only one who didn’t know this, as he hated drawing attention to himself. He also probably would have asked why in the world we decided to gather the texts and discussions he had given over the course of 17 years of work with MSF. He was not concerned with his legacy, which is why he never went to the trouble of collecting his works in one place. This was only made possible because of the great patience and tenacity of Cécile Lapérou, and then Marie Le Page. They deserve wholehearted thanks. Their editing reveals his piercing insight into the key situations and themes that marked the evolution of contemporary humanitarian action.</p> <p>François explored, questioned, and shed light on the field of international aid, from the famine in Ethiopia to the one in North Korea, from the Lome accords to the right to intervene, from humanitarians in war zones to humanitarian wars. Far from moralizing, animated by a permanent restlessness about action and its uncertainties, he always remained a calm and lucid practitioner, anxious to understand and to act, without ever sacrificing one to the other. The texts that follow attest to the fruitfulness of his doubts and the relevance of his critical reflections.</p> <p>François put an end to his own days on December 25, 1999—a dark day, a day of storms. The homage we pay him here in the form of a publication is not an act of piety but rather one of profound and sincere recognition.</p> <p>Thank you, François, for who you were, for what you brought to us, and for what you have left us.</p> <p class="text-align-right">Rony Brauman, 2004</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-chapters field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/ethiopia-chechnya/preface" hreflang="en">Preface</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/ethiopia-chechnya/introduction" hreflang="en">Introduction</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/ethiopia-chechnya/section-one-famine" hreflang="en">Section One Famine</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/ethiopia-chechnya/section-two-conflict" hreflang="en">Section Two Conflict</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/publications/ethiopia-chechnya/section-three-international-aid" hreflang="en">Section Three International Aid</a></div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=4073&amp;2=reading_list" token="jKLdPXnaycC7jzmkr___C99o0veGmgJ3VxoA6VtmeRo"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">From Ethiopia to Chechnya</span> Thu, 01 Apr 2004 00:00:00 +0000 nicolas.l 4073 at https://www.msf-crash.org